Neuroma! Triple Threat....

Can you guess why this patient is developing a neuroma on the left foot, between the 3rd and 4th metatarsals?

IMG_6220.jpg
IMG_6218.jpg
IMG_6219.jpg

This gal presented to the office with pain in the left foot, in the area she points to as being between the 3rd and 4th metatarsals. It has been coming on over time and has become much worse this spring with hiking long distances, especially in narrower shoes. It is relieved by rest and made worse with activity.

Note the following:

  • She has an anatomical short leg on the left (tibial)

  • internal tibial torsion on the left

  • left forefoot adductus (see the post link below if you need a refresher)

Lets think about this.

The anatomical short leg on the left is causing this foot to remain in relative supination compared the right and causes her to bear weight laterally on the foot.

The internal tibial torsion has a similar effect, decreasing the progression angle and again causing her to bear weight laterally on the foot, compressing the metatarsals together.

We have discussed forefoot adductus before here on the blog. Again, because of the metararsal varus angle, it alters the forces traveling through the foot, pushing the metatarsals together and irritating the nerve root sheath, causing hypertrophy of the epineurium and the beginnings of a neuroma.

In this patients case, these things are additive, causing what I like to a call the “triple threat”.

So, what do we do?

  • give her shoes/sandals with a wider toe box

  • work on foot mobility, especially in descending the 1st ray on the left

  • work on foot intrinsic strength, particularly the long extensors

  • treat the area of inflammation with acupuncture

Dr Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys

#forefootadductus #metatarsusadductus #neuroma #gaitanalysis #thegaitguys #internaltibialtorsion

The “Standing on Glass” Static Foot/Pedograph Assessment: Part 1

Screen Shot 2019-01-13 at 7.42.41 PM.png

The “Standing on Glass” Static Foot/Pedograph... PART 1
We hope you find this case presentation dialogue interesting.

* note: This is a static assessment dialogue. One cannot, and must not, make clinical decisions from a static assessment. As in all assessments, information is taken in, digested and them MUST be confirmed, denied and/or at the very least, folded into a functional and clinically relevant assessment of the client before the findings are accepted, dismissed and acted upon.

The “Standing on Glass” Static Foot/Pedograph Assessment: Part 1

* note: This is a static assessment dialogue. One cannot, and must not, make clinical decisions from a static assessment. As in all assessments, information is taken in, digested and them MUST be confirmed, denied and/or at the very least, folded into a functional and clinically relevant assessment of the client before the findings are accepted, dismissed and acted upon. As we always say, a gait analysis or pedograph-type assessment is never enough to make decisions on treatment to resolve problems and injuries. What is seen and represented on either are the client’s strategies around clinical problems or compensations. Today’s photo and blog post are an exercise in critical clinical thinking to get the juices flowing and to get the observer thinking about the client’s presentation and to help open up the field to questions the observer should be entertaining. The big questions should be, “why do i see this, what could be causing these observances ?”

* note the right and left sides by the R and L circled in pink.

ORANGE lines: The right foot appears to be shorter, or is it that the left is longer (see the lines and arrows drawing your attention to these differences)? A shorter foot could be represented by a supinated foot (if you raise the arch via the windlass mechanism you will shorten the foot distance between the rear and forefoot). A longer foot could be represented by a more pronated foot. Is that what we have here ? There is no way to know, this is a static presentation of a client standing on glass. What we should remember is that the goal is always to get the pelvis square and level. If an anatomically or functionally short leg is present, the short leg side MAY supinate to raise the mortise and somewhat lengthen the leg. In that same client, they may try to meet the process part way by pronating the other foot to functionally “shorten” that leg. Is that what is happening here ? So, does this client have a shorter right leg ? Longer left ? Do you see a plunking down heavily onto the right foot in gait ? Remember, what you see is their compensation. Perhaps the right foot is supinating, and thus working harder at the bottom end of the limb (via more supination), to make up for a weak right glute failing to eccentrically control the internal spin of the leg during stance phase ? OR, perhaps the left foot is pronating more to drive more internal rotation on the left limb because there is a restricted left internal hip rotation from the top ? Is the compensation top-down or bottom up ? These are all viable possibilities and you must have these things flowing freely through your head during the clinical examination as you rule in/rule out your hands-on findings. Remember, just going by a FMS-type screen to drive prescription exercises from what you see on a movement screen is not going to necessarily fix the problem, it could in fact lead one to drive a deeper compensation pattern. You can be sure that Gray Cook’s turbo charged brain is juggling all of these issues (and more !) when he sees a screen impairment, although we are not speaking for him here.

Remember this critical fact. After an injury or a long standing problem, muscles and motor patterns jobs are to stabilize and manage loads (stability and mobility) for adequate and necessary movement. Injuries leave a mark on the system as a whole because adaptation was necessary during the initial healing phase. This usually spills over during the early movement re-introduction phase, particularly if movement is reintroduced too early or too aggressively. Plasticity is the culprit. Just because the injury has come and gone does not mean that new patterns of skill, endurance, strength (S.E.S -our favorite mnemonic), stability and mobility were not subsequently built onto the apparently trivial remnants of the injury. There is nothing trivial if it is abnormal. The forces must, and will, play out somewhere in the body and this is often where pain or injury occurs but it is rarely where the underlying problem lives.

Come back tomorrow, where we will open your mind into the yellow, pink, blue and lime markings on the photo. Are the hammering toes (lime) on the left a clue ? How about the width of the feet (yellow) ? The posturing differences of the 5th toe to the lateral foot border ? What about the static plantar pressure differences from side to side (blue)? Maybe, just maybe, we can bring a logical clinical assumption together and then a few clinical exam methods to confirm or dis-confirm our working diagnostic assumption. See you tomorrow friends !

Shawn and ivo, the gait guys

Here is the case link.......

https://thegaitguys.tumblr.com/post/99409232289/the-standing-on-glass-static-footpedograph?fbclid=IwAR3gd3d81Gwt3ywAB7BcTwXqST2Z_5nmieODzSb8rJQYBcJFhTs6rS_9auA

Support for visual gait analysis... with respect to leg length discrepancies


image credit: https://pixabay.com/photos/eye-blue-eyelashes-vision-make-up-691269/

image credit: https://pixabay.com/photos/eye-blue-eyelashes-vision-make-up-691269/

We talk about leg length discrepancies all the time here on the blog and sometimes, how small discrepancies cause changes in peoples biomechanics. The gold standard for measuring a leg length difference is full length lower extremity X ray, but this presents a problem due to the ionizing radiation, accessibility as well as impracticality of X rays every person with a suspected difference.

We have talked about different compensations as to how to get around a leg length discrepancies. Last week we actually did a tell a seminar on this entire subject. Your patient or client needs to “create clearance” for the longer leg side. This can be accomplished in many ways.

The 5 most common strategies (keep in mind there are many more) are:

  • lean the torso to the short leg side (essentially hip adduction of the longer side)

  • hike the torso on the long leg side

  • circumduct the longer lower extremity

  • increase plantar flexion of the calf of the short leg side

  • increase hip and knee flexion on the longer leg side

And that is exactly what this study found. They looked at kinematics in people with anatomical leg length discrepancies and found that hip adduction as well as increased hip and knee flexion were 2 variables that were consistent in folks with anatomical differences and suggest these variables are a useful screening tool.

Paying attention to how people move and looking for asymmetries. In our opinion, that’s the name of the game : )

Dr Ivo Waerlop, on of The Gait Guys

Zeitoune GNadal JBatista LAMetsavaht LMoraes APLeporace G.Prediction of mild anatomical leg length discrepancy based on gait kinematics and linear regression model. Gait Posture. 2019 Jan;67:117-121. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2018.09.027. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

#LLD #leglengthdifference #leglengthinequality #visualgaitanalysis #thegaitguys #gaitanalysis

Case Studies in Gait Analysis: Focus on the Short Leg (online video class)

Case Studies in Gait Analysis: Focus on the Short Leg
*link is below

*this is the online Continuing education class we did last week, for those of you who could not get to the Wednesday evening class.
*our entire catalogue of lectures and seminars are all here on this site for CE/CEU

Case Studies in Gait Analysis: Focus on the Short Leg
- Review anatomical vs functional short leg
-Review the kinematics and kinetics of the short leg during the gait cycle
-View and discuss case studies looking at functional and anatomical short legs
-Predict pathomechanics that will arise from a short leg
-Propose remedies for the gait abnormalities seen

Link: https://chirocredit.com/course/Chiropractic_Doctor/Biomechanics_211

Screen Shot 2019-04-22 at 1.20.16 PM.png

Wild Haggis? Leg length discrepancies on the uphill side? What?

An old Scottish myth has it that the wild haggis (given the fitting taxonomic moniker Haggis scoticus ) is a small fictitious creature (although many folks visiting Scotland believe they are real) that has legs that are longer on one side than the other. There are two varieties: in one the right fore and hind limb are shorter and the other, of course, the left. The asymmetry helps the haggis to circumnavigate the steep mountainsides of its native terrain, but only in a clockwise (if the right legs are short) or counter clockwise (if the left legs are short) direction, so as to not roll down the steep hillside and come to an untimely death; this is purported to be one of the reasons for their near extinction (the other was the introduction of sheep).

The two species coexist peacefully but are unable to interbreed in the wild because in order for the male of one variety to mate with a female of the other, he must turn to face in the same direction as his intended mate, causing him to lose his balance before he can mount her. As a result of this difficulty, differences in leg length among the haggis population are further accentuated, as is there dwindling numbers.

image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wild_haggis#/media/File:Haggis_scoticus.jpg

image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wild_haggis#/media/File:Haggis_scoticus.jpg

It’s an amusing concept, but unfortunately there’s a non-mythical human corollary: Leg-length discrepancies (LLDs), which do not discriminate and affect a wide variety of people, including children with cerebral palsy, people who’ve had hip and knee replacements, and those with scoliosis, pelvic obliquity, or certain muscle contractures/dysfunctions.

Haggis is actually a Scottish dish; lungs and liver of a sheep cooked with other ingredients inside its stomach. Yum (Not!) We are not sure why or how the two are related but it does make for an interesting post : )

Learn more about LLD’s and their compensations by joining us Wednesday, April 17th 5 PST, 6MST, 7CST and 8 EST on onlinece.com: Biomechanics 307

Dr Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys

#haggis #wildhaggis #LLD #leglengthdiscrepancy #leglengthdifference #leglengthinequality #gait #thegaitguys



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wild_haggis

https://lermagazine.com/article/limb-length-discrepancy-when-how-to-intervene

https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/what-is-haggis

https://www.thehaggis.com/wild-haggis-all-about-haggis/

https://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/usfeatures/haggis/wildhaggis.ht

There is more than one way around an LLD....

Leg length discrepancies. Love them, hate them, they happen. They can be either functional, anatomical or both.

No matter what the cause, there are numerous ways to compensate for a leg length discrepancy. Today we are going to look at one of the more common ones, "leaning" to the short leg side to create enough clearance for the opposite lower extremity. This patient has a left sided short leg. Note how he abducts his pelvis, utilizing both the stance limb gluteus medius and swing limb quadratus lumborum of the left leg to create enough space to swing the right leg through.

Want to know more about LLD’s and their compensations? Join us on onlinece.com, Wednesday, April 17th for Biomechanics 307. 6 PM Mountain time. See you there!

Dr Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys.

#LLD #leglengthdifference #leglengthdiscrepancy #leglengthinequality #compensation #gait #gait analysis #thegaitguys

Subtle clues to an LLD?

Leg length discrepancies, whether their functional anatomical, have biomechanical consequences north of the foot. This low back pain patient exhibited 2 signs. Can you tell what they are?

can you see the difference ?

can you see the difference ?

how about now?

how about now?

compare right to left

compare right to left

compare right to left

compare right to left

can you see the difference in the Q angles?

can you see the difference in the Q angles?

Look at the first picture and noticed how the left knee is hyper extended compared to the right. Sometimes we see flexion of this extremity. This is to "functionally shorten" that extremity.

Now look at the Q angles. Can you see how the left QL angle is greater than the right? This usually results from a long-term leg length discrepancy where the body is attempting to compensate by increasing the valgus angle of that knee, effectively shortening the extremity.

Dr Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys

#subtle #clues #LLD #leglengthdiscrepancy #leglengthinequality #thegaitguys #gaitabnormality

Increased unilateral foot pronation can cause cephalad asymmetries.

Screen Shot 2019-04-07 at 9.44.59 AM.png

Increased unilateral foot pronation affects lower limbs and pelvic biomechanics during walking. Nothing earth shaking here, we should all know this as fact. When a foot pronates more excessively, the arch can flatten more, and this can accentuate a leg length differential between the 2 legs. But it is important to note that when pronation is more excessive, it usually carries with it more splay of the medial tripod as the talus also excessively plantarflexes, adducts and medially rotates. This action carries with it a plantar-ward drive of the navicular, medial cuneiforms and medial metatarsals (translation, flattening of the longitudinal arch). These actions force the distal tibia to follow that medially spinning and adducting talus and thus forces the hip to accommodate to these movements. And, where the hip goes, the pelvis must follow . . . . and so much adaptive compensations.
So could a person say that sometimes a temporary therapeutic orthotic might only be warranted on just one foot ? Yes, of course, one could easily reason that out.
-Shawn Allen, one of The Gait Guys

#gait, #gaitanalysis, #gaitproblems, #thegaitguys, #LLD, #leglength, #pronation, #archcollapse, #orthotics, #gaitcompensations, #hippain, #hipbiomechanics

Gait Posture. 2015 Feb;41(2):395-401. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2014.10.025. Epub 2014 Nov 3.
Increased unilateral foot pronation affects lower limbs and pelvic biomechanics during walking.
Resende RA1, Deluzio KJ2, Kirkwood RN3, Hassan EA4, Fonseca ST5.

Increased unilateral foot pronation and its effects upward into the chain.

Increased unilateral foot pronation affects lower limbs and pelvic biomechanics during walking. Nothing earth shaking here, we should all know this as fact. When a foot pronates more excessively, the arch can flatten more, and this can accentuate a leg length differential between the 2 legs. But it is important to note that when pronation is more excessive, it usually carries with it more splay of the medial tripod as the talus also excessively plantarflexes, adducts and medially rotates. This action carries with it a plantar-ward drive of the navicular, medial cuneiforms and medial metatarsals (translation, flattening of the longitudinal arch). These actions force the distal tibia to follow that medially spinning and adducting talus and thus forces the hip to accommodate to these movements. And, where the hip goes, the pelvis must follow . . . . and so much adaptive compensations.
So could a person say that sometimes a temporary therapeutic orthotic might only be warranted on just one foot ? Yes, of course, one could easily reason that out.
-Shawn Allen, one of The Gait Guys

#gait, #gaitanalysis, #gaitproblems, #thegaitguys, #LLD, #leglength, #pronation, #archcollapse, #orthotics, #gaitcompensations, #hippain, #hipbiomechanics

Gait Posture. 2015 Feb;41(2):395-401. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2014.10.025. Epub 2014 Nov 3.
Increased unilateral foot pronation affects lower limbs and pelvic biomechanics during walking.
Resende RA1, Deluzio KJ2, Kirkwood RN3, Hassan EA4, Fonseca ST5.

What does a pedograph of a person with hallux limitus look like?

IMG_5779.jpg
IMG_5780.jpg

Take a good look at the pedographs above. Can you figure out which side has the hallux limitus from the pictures? 

You would think that with hallux limitus there would be increased printing over the distal phalanx of great toe and possibly over the distal metatarsal as seen in the print of the right foot. This would make sense as if you have limited motion here and the pressure will be more forward. However, often times Hallux limitus is painful and the patient develops a compensation to NOT load the joint, as we see on the print of the left foot. We see the lack of printing under the first metatarsal head and increased printing laterally in the foot from avoidance of that joint. Also notice a slight increased printing in the right heel teardrop (hash marks are more filled in) and slight widening of it anteriorly. He has a right sided leg length discrepancy and we would normally expect an increased amount of pronation on the longer leg side, however because of the weight shift to the left we are seeing increased pronation on the right. Now, with this valgus moment of the right foot do you understand why the printing is so heavy under the first metatarsal and distal phalanx. Note also the increased printing at the distal phalanx of toes number two, three and five on the right hand side in an attempt to stabilize as his center of gravity shifts to the right.

And now you know!

Dr Ivo, one of The Gait Guys

#halluxlimitis, #gaitanalysis, #pedograph, #leglengthdiscrepancy, #LLD

Heel lift or sole lift ?

*DO NOT USE A HEEL LIFT, please, for the love of God and all that is beautiful on this earth stop using just heel lifts to correct a length length discrepancy, and thus causing plantarflexion at the ankle by raising just the heel. What about raising the forefoot, too ?! Heel lifts are specific unicorns you only use when you are trying to get more plantarflexion at the ankle, unload a barking unresponsive achilles tendonitis, or for some strange reason you wish to rush someone to the forefoot, or want a shorter posterior compartment (amongst other stupid things you probably do not want in your client mechanics)).
Besides, many people's problems arise from insufficient ankle rocker/dorsiflexion as it is , so why are you sentencing them to the depths of hell by predisposing them to pre-plantarflexed strategies ? You should love your clients ! Using a heel lift requires smarts, deep smarts, and intimate understanding of the pitfalls of pre-positioning the heel higher than the forefoot and what it may do to your clients mechanics over time. Did decades of high heel ramp, high heel-toe drop shoes or a century of high heeled women's shoes not teach us anything? (ok, we are going overboard here to make our point :)
When do we almost exclusively use a heel lift? Very temporarily in unresponsive achilles tendonopathies, and even that can be argued. But, sometimes you have to use unicorns and black magic.
Use your noggin, daily.

shawn and ivo, the gait guys

#gait, #gaitproblems, #gaitanalysis, #thegaitguys, #heellifts, #solelifts, #anklerocker, #ankleplantarflexion, #ankledorsiflexion, #heeltoedrop, #heelrise, #shortachilles

LLD's and Achilles Tendinopathy

Sometimes, it doesn't matter whether it is long or short.

 Achilles tendinopathy .. there are many factors that can contribute. Have you considered leg length inequality? Generally speaking, People have a tendency to overpronate on the longer leg side and under prone only shorter leg side with strain on the medial and lateral aspects of the Achilles tendon respectively. It would make sense that this could be a contributing factor.

 "The mean inequality in length of legs (ILL) was 5 +/- 4 mm. Among the 48 patients with ILL > or = 5 mm, the side affected with ruptured tendon was longer in 48% of cases and shorter in 52%. "

Age and pathology can play a role with younger, healthy tender and having greater compliance.

Proprioception is impaired on the affected side of folks with Achilles tendinopathy. This is a "chicken and the egg" scenario. Did impaired proprioception cause the tendinopathy or is the tendinopathy causing the impaired proprioception? Probably, a little bit of both.

Dr Ivo, one of The Gait Guys

Leppilahti J, Korpelainen R, Karpakka J, Kvist M, Orava S. Ruptures of the Achilles tendon: relationship to inequality in length of legs and to patterns in the foot and ankle. Foot Ankle Int. 1998 Oct;19(10):683-7.

Scholes M, Stadler S, Connell D, Barton C, Clarke RA, Bryant AL, Malliaras P. Men with unilateral Achilles tendinopathy have impaired balance on the symptomatic side. J Sci Med Sport. 2018 May;21(5):479-482. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2017.09.594. Epub 2017 Oct 6.

Intziegianni K, Cassel M, Rauf S, White S, Rector M, Kaplick H, Wahmkow G, Kratzenstein S, Mayer F. Influence of Age and Pathology on Achilles Tendon Properties During a Single-leg Jump. Int J Sports Med. 2016 Nov;37(12):973-978. Epub 2016 Aug 8.

#achilles,#tendon, #achillestendon, #tendinopathy, #proprioception

More subtle clues..LLD's

IMG_5518.jpg
IMG_5515.jpg
IMG_5521.jpg

This gentleman presented to the office with left-sided knee pain at the medial collateral ligament following a cutting injury, moving from right to left with the left foot planted. As you can see, he has an anatomical leg length discrepancy with tibial and probable femoral length deficiencies on the left side. Can you see the subtle, increased tone of the long flexors of the toes on the left hand side as it evidenced by the increased prominence of the long extensor tendons to a greater degree on the shorter side? This is a common compensation seen in true leg length discrepancies with clawing of the toes in attempt to create stability on the shorter leg side. Often times, the progression angle on the shorter side will be increased as well.

And why does this guy have hip pain?

line up the center of the heel counters with the outsoles, and what do you see?

line up the center of the heel counters with the outsoles, and what do you see?

can you see how the heel counter is centered on the outsole, like it is supposed to be

can you see how the heel counter is centered on the outsole, like it is supposed to be

notice how the heel counter of the shoe is canted medially on the outsole of the shoe, creating a varus cant

notice how the heel counter of the shoe is canted medially on the outsole of the shoe, creating a varus cant

Take a guy with lower back and left sided sub patellar pain that also has a left anatomically short leg (tibial) and bilateral internal tibial torsion and put him in these baby’s to play pickleball and you have a prescription for disaster.

Folks with an LLD generally (soft rule here) have a tendency to supinate more on the short leg side (in an attempt to make the limb longer) and pronate more on the longer leg side (to make the limb shorter). Supination causes external rotation of the lower limb (remember, we are trying to make the foot into a rigid lever in a “normal” gait cycle). this external rotation with rotate the knee externally (laterally). Folks with internal tibial torsion usually rotate their limb externally to give them a better progression angle (of the foot) so they don’t trip and fall from having their feet pointing inward. This ALSO moves the knee into external rotation (laterally), often moving it OUTSIDE the saggital plane. In this case, the knee, because of the difference in leg length AND internal tibial torsion AND the varus cant of the shoe, has his knee WAY OUTSIDE the saggital plane, causing faulty patellar tracking and LBP.

Moral of the story? When people present with a problem ALWAYS TAKE TIME TO LOOK AT THEIR SHOES!

What’s up, Doc?

Nothing like a little brain stretching and a little Pedograph action.

This person had 2nd metatarsal head pain on the left. Can you figure out why?

Let’s start at the rear foot:

  • limited calcaneal eversion (pronation) L > R. The teardrop shape is more rounded on the left. This indicates some rigidity here.
  • note the increased pressure at the  medial calcaneal facets on each side with the increased printing
  • very little fat pad displacement overall

Now let’s look at the mid foot:

  • decreased mid foot pronation on the L. See how thin the line is going from the rear foot to the forefoot along the lateral column? This indicates a high lateral longitudinal arch

Now how about the fore foot?

  • increased printing under the met heads bilaterally; L >> R
  • increased printing of 1st met head L >> R
  • increased printing at medial proximal phalynx of hallux  L >> R
  • increased printing of distal phalanges of all toes L >> R

 Figure it out?

What would cause increased supination on the L?

  • short leg on L
  • more rigid foot on L
  • increased pronation on the R

Did you notice the elongated 2nd metatarsals (ie: Morton’s toe) on each foot?

Here is what is going on:

  • there is no appreciable leg length deformity, functional or anatomical
  • The Left foot is more rigid than the Right, thus less rear, mid and fore foot pronation, thus it is in relative supination compared to the right foot

do this: stand and make your L foot more rigid than the right; take a step forward with your right foot, what do you notice?

  • Can you feel how when your foot is supinated
  • can you see how difficult it is to have ankle rocker at this point? remember: supination is plantar flexion, inversion and adduction
  • Can you feel the weight of the body shift to the outside of the foot and your toes curl to make the foot more stable, so you do not tip to the left?
  • now, how are you going to get your center of mass forward from here? You need to press off from your big toe (hallux)

Wow, does that make sense now?

What’s the fix?

  • create a more supple foot with manipulation, massage, muscle work
  • increase ankle rocker by training the anterior compartment (shuffle walks, lift/spread/reach exercise, heel walking, Texas walk exercise, etc)
  • have them walk with their toes slightly elevated
  • we are sure you can think of more ways as well!

The Gait Guys. Increasing your gait literacy with each and every post. I

Pod #124: Gluteal gripping, Runner's dystonia. Are leg length differences real ?

Key tag words:
running, gait, injuries, kidney, kidneydamage, marathoners, foot, feet, dehydration, heatstroke, elon musk, neural lace, hip pain, crossfit, squats, deadlifts,  LLD, short leg, dystonia, runner's dystonia, posture, 

Summary:  Today we hit some very important topics on how to examine a client and how asymmetries play into gait, running, posture and pathomechanics. We hope you enjoy today's show, it is our first one back in 6 weeks. We are back strong after a brief early summer sabbatical. Back to the "podcast every 2 weeks" again. Thanks for being patient while Ivo recharged for the second half of the year.   Plus, on today's show, we also dive into Runner's kidney, dehydration, gluteal gripping, runner's dystonia, functional leg length differences due to asymmetries, and more !

Show links:

http://traffic.libsyn.com/thegaitguys/pod_124final.mp3

http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/pod-124

Our Websites:
www.thegaitguys.com

summitchiroandrehab.com   doctorallen.co     shawnallen.net
Our website is all you need to remember. Everything you want, need and wish for is right there on the site.
Interested in our stuff ? Want to buy some of our lectures or our National Shoe Fit program? Click here (thegaitguys.com or thegaitguys.tumblr.com) and you will come to our websites. In the tabs, you will find tabs for STORE, SEMINARS, BOOK etc. We also lecture every 3rd Wednesday of the month on onlineCE.com. We have an extensive catalogued library of our courses there, you can take them any time for a nominal fee (~$20).
 
Our podcast is on iTunes, Soundcloud, and just about every other podcast harbor site, just google "the gait guys podcast", you will find us.
 
Show Notes:

Kidney Damage in Runners. 82%  !?
http://www.newsweek.com/running-bad-you-marathons-damage-kidneys-runners-bodies-575829
 
Kidney nephropathy in mesoamericans.
http://www.ajkd.org/article/S0272-6386(15)01257-3/fulltext  
 
Elon Musk's Neural Lace.
https://www.scoopwhoop.com/elon-musk-launches-neuralink-which-hopes-to-combine-your-brain-with-artificial-intelligence/
 
Leg length discrepancies,do they really even exist ?
Dystonia ?
The Gluteal gripping phenomenon.

When the wrong shoe, meets the right foot

Is it any wonder that this gentleman has pain on the dorsum of this his feet?

1st of all, how about his internal tibial torsion? It is bilateral, L > R. This places the majority of his weight on the outside of his feet, keeping him somewhat supinated most of the time.

2nd: he has an anatomical leg length discrepancy on the right which is tibial (see pictures 2 and 3). This will place EVEN MORE weight on the outside of the right foot, as it will often remain in supination in an attempt to "lengthen" itself.

3rd, take a look at his shoes. Is this particular model supposed to be rear foot posted in varus? Talk about adding insult to injury! This will place this guys feet into EVEN MORE supination and EVEN MORE on the outside of his feet. maybe the right shoe is worn into more supination because of his right sided LLD?

And if that wasn't enough, this particular shoe has increased torsional rigidity through the midfoot, slowing or arresting any hope of shock absorption that he may have. 

Yikes! We sure wish more folks knew more about feet and shoes! Maybe they should think about taking the National Shoe Fit Program? Email us for more info.

tumblr_o92viq6Er51qhko2so1_1280.jpg
tumblr_o92viq6Er51qhko2so2_1280.jpg
tumblr_o92viq6Er51qhko2so3_1280.jpg

Holy Leg Length discrepancy!

These pix come to us from one of our brethren, Dr Scott Tesoro in Carbondale of a 73 yr old golfer with mild LBP and a  L knee replacement three yrs ago. He has a VERY short R leg (close to an inch).

What you are seeing is he ultimate compensation for a short leg. Note how he takes the shorter side and supinates it (to the max!). You can see the external rotation of the lower leg and thigh to go along with it. If you look carefully and extrapolate how his left leg would look “neutral”, you can see he has internal tibial torsion on this (right) side as well. He has some increased midfoot pronation on the right compared to the left, but not an excessive amount.

A full length sole lift would probably be in order, as well as potentially addressing some of his compensations. Wow, what a great set of pictures !

tumblr_o864jbYF2R1qhko2so1_1280.jpg
tumblr_o864jbYF2R1qhko2so2_1280.jpg
tumblr_o864jbYF2R1qhko2so3_1280.jpg
tumblr_o864jbYF2R1qhko2so4_1280.jpg

Short leg and mottling of the skin

Have you ever heard of Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome? I hadn’t either, until I had a patient come in with low back pain and a gait issue and said she had it.

Evidently, in 1900, noted French physicians Klippel and Trenaunay first described a syndrome in 2 patients presenting with a port-wine stain and varicosities of an extremity associated with hypertrophy of the affected limb’s bony and soft tissue. Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome (KTWS) is characterized by a triad of port-wine stain, varicose veins, and bony and soft tissue hypertrophy involving an extremity (1).

Most cases KTWS are sporadic, although a few cases in the literature report an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance (2). There is no racial predilection, even distribution between males and females and presents at birth or during early childhood (3). It generally affects a single extremity, although cases of multiple affected limbs have been reported. The leg is the most common site followed by the arms, the trunk, and rarely the head and the neck(4).

This patient had a history of low back pain with a recent epidural steroid injection. Exam highlights included a R sided leg length discrepancy approximately 5mm (tibial and femoral). Pelvic tilt to the right (for LLD) with anterior rotation of that side of the pelvis, posterior on the opposite side (counter clockwise pelvic distortion pattern). Lumbar flexion off 60/90 with all motion occurring in the lumbar spine (ie: no hip hinge), extension 20/30, lateral bending 30/45 BL with pain ipsilateral. Decreased low back endurance of <50 seconds in extension.

Right lower extremity was smaller (appeared hypoplastic) than left and had multiple discolorations in the skin (see pictures). L sided Q angle > R (12 vs 8 degrees). Less internal rotation of the right lower extremity compared to left, but with normal limits. Gait revealed a shift and hike to the right during stance phase with an increased arm swing on the right. Foot intrinsics were weak (lumbricals, EDL, FDB, dorsal intrerossei)

She walked in a pair of Chaco sandals with allowed much greater calcaneal eversion bilaterally R > L.

MRI revealed paraspinal marbling at the lower part of the lumbar spine, improving as you move rostrally. Small disc herniations at L3/4, 4/5, 5/S1, which did not effect the exiting nerve roots. Degenerative changes in the lumbar facet joints. There was no radiographic evidence of instability.

Impression:
It seems that she did not have enough intrinsic for the strength to stop calcaneal eversion in her Chaco’s and therefore this was causing increased foot pronation. This, combined with her leg length discrepancy, was contributing to increasing the lordosis in her lumbar spine, causing facet joint irritation. This was compounded by weakness and lack of endurance of the lumbar paraspinal musculature. The effects of the Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome are evident with the IPO plasticity of the right lower extremity and accompanying musculoskeletal abnormalities.

What did we do?

  • Gave her endurance exercises for the lumbar spine.
  • Gave her propriosensorv exercises for the lumbar spine
  • Recommended she continue with the 5 mm sole lift.
  • Advised getting rid of the Chaco sandals as they allow too much calcaneal eversion and sticking to a shoe that has a stronger/larger heel counter.
  • acupuncture to improve circulation and proprioception as well as muscular function
  • we will monitor weekly for the next 4 to 6 weeks.

All in all, and interesting use with a little twist (not a torsion, of course!) : )


1. http://reference.medscape.com/article/1084257-overview
2. Ceballos-Quintal JM, Pinto-Escalante D, Castillo-Zapata I. A new case of Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber (KTW) syndrome: evidence of autosomal dominant inheritance. Am J Med Genet. 1996 Jun 14. 63(3):426-7.
3. Sung HM, Chung HY, Lee SJ, Lee JM, Huh S, Lee JW, et al. Clinical Experience of the Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome. Arch Plast Surg. 2015 Sep. 42 (5):552-8.
4. http://reference.medscape.com/article/1084257-clinical

tumblr_o19wj7jqB71qhko2so1_1280.jpg
tumblr_o19wj7jqB71qhko2so2_1280.jpg
tumblr_o19wj7jqB71qhko2so3_1280.jpg
tumblr_o19wj7jqB71qhko2so4_1280.jpg
tumblr_o19wj7jqB71qhko2so5_1280.jpg
tumblr_o19wj7jqB71qhko2so6_1280.jpg

Hmmm..What’s going on here? Can you see it?

Welcome to Monday, Folks, and News You Can Use! Sometimes, it’s the subtle things that make all the difference.

Take a look at this patients right leg versus left legs (knees in particular). What do you see?  Can you notice the subtle bend in the right knee?  Can you see how she hyperextends the left? Can you see that she has an anatomical deficiency (Tibial) of the left tibia? This is a common finding if you look for it.

 Noticing subtle changes like these in your examination can make all the difference in your outcomes. This particular patient happens to have right-sided knee pain. On examination (difficult to see from the photos) she has increased amounts of mid foot pronation.  She presented with right sided back pain running from the supra iliac region up along the right lumbar paraspinal’s. You can manipulate this patient forever and her problem is not going to improve until you address the cause.

 Develop keen sense of observation. Become a “student of the obvious”.  Keep your eyes and ears open. Expand your clinical skill set.  Sometimes, when all we have is a hammer, everything starts to look like a nail.