3 things

Its subtle, but hopefully you see these 3 things in this video.

I just LOVE the slow motion feature on my iPhone. It save me from having to drag the video into Quicktime, slow it down and rerecord it.

This gal has a healing left plantar plate lesion under the 2nd and 3rd mets. She has an anatomical leg length deficiency, short on the left, and bilateral internal tibial torsion, with no significant femoral version. Yes, there are plenty of other salient details, but this sketch will help.

  1. 1st if all, do you see how the pelvis on her left dips WAY more when she lands on the right? There is a small amount of coronal plane shift to the right as well. This often happens in gluteus medius insufficiency on the stance phase leg (right in this case), or quadratus lumborum (QL) deficiency on the swing phase leg (left in this case) or both. Yes, there are other things that can cause this and the list is numerous, but lets stick to these 2 for now. In this case it was her left QL driving the bus.

  2. Watch the left and right forefeet. can you see how she strikes more inverted on the left? this is a common finding, as the body often (but not always) tries to supinate the shorter extremity (dorsiflexion, eversion and adduction, remember?) in an attempt to “lengthen” it. Yes, there is usually anterior pelvic tilt accompanying it on the side, because I knew you were going to ask : )

  3. Look how her knees are OUTSIDE the saggital plane and remain there in her running stride. This is commonly seen in folks with internal tibial torsion and is one of the reasons that in our opinion, these folks should not be put medially posted, torsionally rigid, motion control shoes as this usually drive the knees FURTHER outside the saggital plane and can macerate the meniscus.

Yep, lots more we could talk about on this video, but in my opinion, 3 is a good number.

Dr Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys

#thegaitguys #gaitanalysis #footpain #gaitproblem #internaltibialtorsion #quadratuslumborum #footstrike


What does a pedograph of a person with hallux limitus look like?


Take a good look at the pedographs above. Can you figure out which side has the hallux limitus from the pictures? 

You would think that with hallux limitus there would be increased printing over the distal phalanx of great toe and possibly over the distal metatarsal as seen in the print of the right foot. This would make sense as if you have limited motion here and the pressure will be more forward. However, often times Hallux limitus is painful and the patient develops a compensation to NOT load the joint, as we see on the print of the left foot. We see the lack of printing under the first metatarsal head and increased printing laterally in the foot from avoidance of that joint. Also notice a slight increased printing in the right heel teardrop (hash marks are more filled in) and slight widening of it anteriorly. He has a right sided leg length discrepancy and we would normally expect an increased amount of pronation on the longer leg side, however because of the weight shift to the left we are seeing increased pronation on the right. Now, with this valgus moment of the right foot do you understand why the printing is so heavy under the first metatarsal and distal phalanx. Note also the increased printing at the distal phalanx of toes number two, three and five on the right hand side in an attempt to stabilize as his center of gravity shifts to the right.

And now you know!

Dr Ivo, one of The Gait Guys

#halluxlimitis, #gaitanalysis, #pedograph, #leglengthdiscrepancy, #LLD

And why does this guy have hip pain?

line up the center of the heel counters with the outsoles, and what do you see?

line up the center of the heel counters with the outsoles, and what do you see?

can you see how the heel counter is centered on the outsole, like it is supposed to be

can you see how the heel counter is centered on the outsole, like it is supposed to be

notice how the heel counter of the shoe is canted medially on the outsole of the shoe, creating a varus cant

notice how the heel counter of the shoe is canted medially on the outsole of the shoe, creating a varus cant

Take a guy with lower back and left sided sub patellar pain that also has a left anatomically short leg (tibial) and bilateral internal tibial torsion and put him in these baby’s to play pickleball and you have a prescription for disaster.

Folks with an LLD generally (soft rule here) have a tendency to supinate more on the short leg side (in an attempt to make the limb longer) and pronate more on the longer leg side (to make the limb shorter). Supination causes external rotation of the lower limb (remember, we are trying to make the foot into a rigid lever in a “normal” gait cycle). this external rotation with rotate the knee externally (laterally). Folks with internal tibial torsion usually rotate their limb externally to give them a better progression angle (of the foot) so they don’t trip and fall from having their feet pointing inward. This ALSO moves the knee into external rotation (laterally), often moving it OUTSIDE the saggital plane. In this case, the knee, because of the difference in leg length AND internal tibial torsion AND the varus cant of the shoe, has his knee WAY OUTSIDE the saggital plane, causing faulty patellar tracking and LBP.

Moral of the story? When people present with a problem ALWAYS TAKE TIME TO LOOK AT THEIR SHOES!

Sometimes, it doesn't matter whether it is long or short.

Achilles tendinopathy (AT) .. there are many factors that can contribute.

Have you considered leg length inequality? Generally speaking, People have a tendency to overpronate on the longer leg side and under prone only shorter leg side with strain on the medial and lateral aspects of the Achilles tendon respectively. It would make sense that this could be a contributing factor.

 "The mean inequality in length of legs (ILL) was 5 +/- 4 mm. Among the 48 patients with ILL > or = 5 mm, the side affected with ruptured tendon was longer in 48% of cases and shorter in 52%. " (1)

Age and pathology can play a role with younger, healthy tendons having greater compliance, with compliance being considered a risk factor for AT.(2)

Proprioception is impaired on the affected side of folks with Achilles tendinopathy (3). This is a "chicken and the egg" scenario. Did impaired proprioception cause the tendinopathy or is the tendinopathy causing the impaired proprioception? Probably, a little bit of both.

All this and more to be discussed in one of the 3 cases we will discuss tomorrow evening, Wednesday, August 15th on onlinece.com: Biomechanics 320   5PST, 6 MST, 7 CST, 8 EST

Hope to see you there!

1. Leppilahti J, Korpelainen R, Karpakka J, Kvist M, Orava S. Ruptures of the Achilles tendon: relationship to inequality in length of legs and to patterns in the foot and ankle. Foot Ankle Int. 1998 Oct;19(10):683-7.

2. Intziegianni K, Cassel M, Rauf S, White S, Rector M, Kaplick H, Wahmkow G, Kratzenstein S, Mayer F. Influence of Age and Pathology on Achilles Tendon Properties During a Single-leg Jump. Int J Sports Med. 2016 Nov;37(12):973-978. Epub 2016 Aug 8.

3. Scholes M, Stadler S, Connell D, Barton C, Clarke RA, Bryant AL, Malliaras P. Men with unilateral Achilles tendinopathy have impaired balance on the symptomatic side. J Sci Med Sport. 2018 May;21(5):479-482. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2017.09.594. Epub 2017 Oct 6.

Got Short leg?

Ahhhh. They get it!


Our favorite quote from this article " Understanding limb-length compensation
We encourage you to pay as much attention to any abnormal compensation pattern as you do to the LLD itself. It is well documented that abnormal biomechanics, such as you would find in a compensatory pattern, can result in vibratory forces and microtrauma along the closed kinetic chain (Figure 1). The spinal facet; hip, knee, ankle and foot joints; and their associated muscles may suffer repetitive microtrauma resulting in sprain, strain, or degenerative joint disease. By addressing compensatory neuro-musculoskeletal function, you may be able to assist the patient with a cascade of dysfunction through the musculoskeletal system.

We also encourage you to make use of gait assessment technology to quantify, document, and monitor patients’ progress. Application of reproducible, documented metrics is essential to communicate effectively within a multidisciplinary system that is committed to practicing evidence-based medicine."



Hmmm..What’s going on here? Can you see it?

Welcome to Monday, Folks, and News You Can Use! Sometimes, it’s the subtle things that make all the difference.

Take a look at this patients right leg versus left legs (knees in particular). What do you see?  Can you notice the subtle bend in the right knee?  Can you see how she hyperextends the left? Can you see that she has an anatomical deficiency (Tibial) of the left tibia? This is a common finding if you look for it.

 Noticing subtle changes like these in your examination can make all the difference in your outcomes. This particular patient happens to have right-sided knee pain. On examination (difficult to see from the photos) she has increased amounts of mid foot pronation.  She presented with right sided back pain running from the supra iliac region up along the right lumbar paraspinal’s. You can manipulate this patient forever and her problem is not going to improve until you address the cause.

 Develop keen sense of observation. Become a “student of the obvious”.  Keep your eyes and ears open. Expand your clinical skill set.  Sometimes, when all we have is a hammer, everything starts to look like a nail. 

Can you believe they missed this? Sometimes you just need to look. This gal has knee pain on the R a “funny gait” and right sided low back pain in the sacro iliac joint fr the last 3 years. She felt like she needed to keep her right leg bent and her left straight all the time. She was unable to hike or walk distances longer than 1 mile or time longer than 30 minutes without slowing down and having pain. She has had reconstructive surgery on the right knee for an ACL/MCL, physical therapy, medication, counseling and even stroke rehabilitation/gait retraining. On exam she has a marked genu varus bilaterally. Knee stability is good anterior/posterior drawer; valgus/varus stress. One leg standing with both eyes open is less than 15 seconds, eyes closed is negligible. She has an anatomically short L leg; at least 2 cm which is both tibial and femoral. She was unaware of this and noone had adressed it in any way. She was given a 10mm sole length lift for the L leg and propriosensory exercises. She was encouraged to walk with a heel to toe gait. She felt 50% better immediately and another 20% after 2 weeks of doing the exercises. She had gone on several 5 mile hikes for over 2 hours with minimal discomfort. Nothing earth shaking here. Just an exam which covered the basics and some common sense treatment. Too bad they are not all that easy, eh? The takeaway? Look and listen. The problem was on the side opposite her complaint, as it can be many times. Look at the area of chief complaint 1st, but then look everywhere else : ).


So what do these dogs tell us?

These are pedographs of a 12 year old male who was brought into the office last week by his mother with knee pain, bilaterally, R > L and bilateral hip pain.

Clinical findings are a left tibial and femoral leg length deficiency of over 1 cm; bilateral internal tibial torsion in excess of 40 degrees; no femoral retro or ante torsion.

Gait evaluation revealed moderate rear and midfoot pronation. He leaned to the left during stance phase on the left. Arm swing had bilateral symmetry.

So, what can you tell us about internal tibial torsion?

The tibial torsion angle is measured by looking at the angle of the tibial plateau and the intermaleolar line (see middle picture above). The distal tibia begins in utero having an angle of 0 degrees in the infant an “untwists” to 22 degrees by adulthood (see far right). Tom Michaud does a great job talking about this in this book “Human Locomotion: The conservative Management of Gait Related Disorders”. When it moves less than the requisite amount (possibly due to biomechanical. genetic or environmental influences), you get internal tibial torsion. This means the foot is pointed inward when the knee is in the coronal plane (ie facing straight forward)