Podcast #25: Bionics, Arm Swing & Footwear

Great podcast today, #25. Wide range of topics today: the first truly bionic body part, technical shoe issues, GTO’s and more. 

podcast link: 


iTunes link: https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-gait-guys-podcast/id559864138

Gait Guys online /download store:


Today’s show notes:


1. The First Truly Bionic Hand


“The first bionic hand that allows an amputee to feel what they are touching will be transplanted later this year in a pioneering operation that could introduce a new generation of artificial limbs with sensory perception.

2. Effects of toning shoes on lower extremity gait biomechanics


Clinical Biomechanics, Jan 2013

3. Beware of trendy barefoot running shoes - you could end up with broken bones in your foot


  • Advocates of barefoot running claim it can reduce injuries and back pain
  • ‘Minimalist’ shoes such as these now account for 15% of sales
  • But experts say many people suffer injuries by overdoing it early on
  • Runners should make transition from regular trainers more slowly, they say

4. Foot strike and injury rates in endurance runners: a retrospective study.
Daoud AI, Geissler GJ, Wang F, Saretsky J, Daoud YA, Lieberman DE.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012 Jul;44(7):1325-34. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182465115.

Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.

5. Effects of foot strike on low back posture, shock attenuation, and comfort in running.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013 Mar;45(3):490-6

CONCLUSION: Change in foot strike from RFS to FFS decreased overall ROM in the lumbar spine but did not make a difference in flexion or extension in which the lumbar spine is positioned. Shock attenuation was greater in RFS. RFS was perceived a more comfortable running pattern.

*it seems to becoming a question as to what you are doing with the body parts at impact……..where it be you are RFS or FFS.  Do you have the ability to protect the parts in varying mechanical stressful positions.

6. Hey guys, Dr. Ryan:

I just listened to Pod 23 and Ivo you mentioned sagittal curves not developing until after birth..  There is evidence they begin to develop in-utero.  Here is an article excerpt and link to it.
"In many anatomy texts, it is often claimed and/or assumed that the cervical lordosis is a secondary curve and is not present during intra-uterine life. However, as early as 1977, Bagnall et al3 demonstrated that the cervical lordotic curve is formed in intrauterine life (9.5 weeks). In 195 fetuses, Bagnall et al3 found that by 9.5 weeks, 83% of fetuses have a cervical lordosis, 11% have a military configuration, and only 6% of fetuses are in the typically described kyphotic position of the cervical spine. This means that by 9.5 weeks, 94% of the fetuses are starting to use their posterior cervical muscles to pull the cervical curve away from the fetal “C”-shape. Fetuses have a cervical lordosis before birth, however, the lordosis increases during post-natal life at ages 3 months-9 months as the infant raises his/her head and begins to sit up.4”


  1. Harrison DD, et al. Spine 1996; 21: 667-675.
  2. Harrison DD, et al. Spine 2004; 29:2485-2492.
  3. Bagnall KM, et al. J Anat 1977;124:791-802.
  4. Kure S. J Tokyo Med Collage 1972;30;453-470.
  5. Kasai T, et al. Growth. Spine 1996;21:2067-2073.
  6. Harrison DE, Harrson DD, Haas JW. Evanston, WY: Harrison CBP Seminars, Inc., 2002, ISBN 0-9721314-0-X.
  7. Shatz A, et al. Acta Anat 1994;149:141-145.
  8. McAviney J, et al. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2005;28:187-193.
  9. Bastecki A, et al. ADHD: A CBP Case Study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2004; 27(8):e14.

7. “Dynamic Arm Swing in Human Walking, (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19640879) where it was determined that normal arm swinging required minimal shoulder torque, while volitionally holding the arms still required 12% more metabolic energy. Among measures of gait mechanics, vertical ground reaction moment was most affected by arm swinging and increased by 63% without it.
* brings up issues of shoulder pathology……rot cuff, frozen shoulder, carrying a purse, water bottle etc

8. Winter foot wear:
We like Steger Mukluks…….youtube video   "gait guys mukluks”

9. Versions: one of the more difficult concepts to grasp…………..here is a Q from a FB reader

  • Does retroversion mean this child will automatically grow up with abnormal mechanics - leading to possible knee foot hip back issue etc? Is there a fix to prevent such without an ortho’s bone saw?
    10. The role of GTO’s in plyometric exercises.