Shoes and Cushioning

…and…Shoes with cushioning fail to absorb impact when humans run and jump, and amplify force under certain conditions, because soft materials used as interfaces between the foot and support surface elicit a predictable reduction in impact-moderating behavior. This behavior is not a response to sensations directly caused by impact because, ….
….whereas barefoot humans estimate impact precisely, humans judge it inaccurately when shod. Recent reports also indicate that humans reduce impact-moderating behavior, thereby amplifying impact, when they are convinced that they are well protected by the footwear they are wearing. …accounts for the 123% greater frequency of injuries with the most expensive shoes found by Marti.18