The “Dodgy Foot”, a UK runner’s dilemma.

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We get “help me” emails from all over the world on a regular basis. Recently we received this photo from a runner in Oxford, UK, often we cannot help, but when there is a story to tell that everyone can learn from, we offer what we can. This runner was frustrated, explaining a “dodgy foot”. We like the word.

dodg·y däjē/

-dishonest or unreliable; potentially dangerous; of low quality.

We can likely guarantee you that the solution here to this runner’s form issue is not wholly at the foot which appears “in toed” and slanted and appears ready to kick the back of the right heel, not to mention the knees that are about to brush together. Thus, merely working on their foot strike would be so remedial and corrupt that it would a crime.

Ivo and I do not take on cases via the internet because we cannot give all the information because we cannot examine the client, many do offer such services but people are not being given the whole story and we pledged long ago not to be part of the problem. Anyone who recommends exercises from things they see on a video gait analysis are basically doing the same disservice in our opinion. But sometimes, as in this case, their inquiry offers a opportunity for dialogue. This is one of those cases. I will not be presenting a solution, because I do not have the examination information I need, but I will propose a thought process that further investigation may afford progress towards some answers.

This appears like a non-pathologic cross over gait in my mind until proven otherwise, there may be other sources, causes and components, but when it quacks like a duck you’d be silly not to check for webbed feet. There are many component parts that leave someone with a cross over type gait (ie a narrow based gait, that if taken further, might as well result in running on a line). This runner even confirmed upon questioning that the left foot scuffs the inside of the right ankle/shin often, both sides scuff in fact but more left shoe on right shin. No Einsteinian epiphany there.

This means a narrow swing through (adducting) left limb.
This might mean stance and swing phase gluteus medius communication problems.
This might mean swing leg foot targeting problems.
This often suggests right, but sometimes both right and left, frontal plane pelvis sway problems which means pelvis control is challenged which means core lumbar stability control is challenged.
This means adaptive arm swing changes from the clean norm. Arm swing to a large degree is driven by the lower limb motor patterns, despite what some people will propose (dive into our archives to find some of those research articles).
This does NOT mean this runner has pain, or pain yet, or maybe never will have pain but there are many determinants of that which I will discuss below.

But, make no mistake, this is flawed gait mechanics, but that does not translate to injury, speed, outcome or pain. But when they come with those complaints attached, one would be foolish not to at least consider these biomechanics as a source.
The left swing leg is clearly targeting a more medial placement, meaning limb adduction (active or passive or both is to be determined) and this is a product of the cross over gait (unfamiliar with the cross over gait ? SEARCH our blog for the term, you will need a few hours of free time to get through it all). Some would call the cross over gait a lazy gait, but I would rather term it an efficient gait taken too far that it has now become a liability, a liability in which they can no longer stabilize frontal plane sway/drift. A wider gait on the other hand, as in most sprinters, is less efficient but may procure more power and the wider base is more stable affording less frontal plane drift. Just go walk around your home and move from a very narrow line walking gait to a wide gait and you will feel a more powerful engagement of the glutes. Mind you, this is not a fix for cross over gaits, gosh, if it was only that simple !

This runner might investigate whether there is right frontal plane drift, and if it is in fact occurring, find the source of the drift. It can come from many places on either limb. (This client says they are scuffing both inside ankles, which is not atypical and so we likely have drift on both right and left). We have discussed many of them here in various places on the blog over the years. Now as for “Why” the foot looks in toed, well that can also come from many places. Quite simply the adducted limb once it leaves toe off (a toe off that is most often a "low gear toe off", meaning not a medial/hallux toe off), can look like this. But, perhaps it is also a product of insufficient external rotation maintenance occurred during that left stance phase, affording more internal rotation which is being unchecked and observed here during early swing. Remember though, if this is in fact a cross over gait result, in this gait the limb approaches the ground unstacked (foot is too far inside a left hip joint plumb line) the foot will greet the ground at a far lateral strike and in supination. Pronation will thus be magnified and accelerated, if there is enough time before toe off. However, and you can try this on your own by walking around your home, put yourself in terminal stance at toe off. Make sure you have the foot inverted so you are toeing off the lateral toes (low gear toe off). Does this foot not look like the one in the photo ? Yes it does, now just lift the foot off the ground and you have reproduced this photo. And when combined with a right pelvis drift, the foot will sneak further medially appearing postured behind the right foot.

Keep this in mind as well, final pronation and efficient hallux (big toe) toe off does often not occur in someone who strikes the ground on a far lateral foot. I am sure this runner will now be aware of how poorly they toe off of the big toe, the hallux. They will tend to progress towards low gear toe off, off the lesser toes. This leaves the foot inverted and this is what you are seeing in her the photo above. That is a foot that is inverted and supinated and it carried through all the way through toe off and into early swing. It is a frequently component of the cross over gait, look for it, you will find it, often.

Final thoughts, certainly this can be an isolated left swing phase gluteus medius weakness enabling an adducted swing limb thus procuring a faulty medial foot placement, but it is still part of the cross over phenomenon. Most things when it comes to a linked human frame do not work in isolation. But i will leave you with a complicating factor and hopefully you will realize that gait analysis truly does require a physical exam, and without it you could be missing the big picture problem. What if she has a notable fixed anatomic internal tibia torsion on that left side. Yup, it could all be that simple, and that is not something you can fix, you learn to manage that one as a runner.

* Side bar rant: Look at any google search of runners photos and you will see this type of swing limb foot posturing often, far too often. That does not mean it is normal ! That means, that many people do this, but it cannot mean that it is optimal mechanics. And yes, you can take the stance that “I do it as well and i have no injuries or problems so what is the big deal?”. Our response is often “you do have an issue, it may be anatomic or functional, but you do have an asymmetrical gait and you think it is not a problem, YET”. And maybe you will run till you are 6 feet under and not have a problem because you have accommodated over many years and you are a great compensator, yes, some people get lucky. Some people also do not run enough miles that these issues express themselves clinically so lets be fair. But some of these people are reality deniers and spend their life buying the newest brace or gadget, trying a different shoe insert, orthotic or new shoe of the month and shop over and over again for another video gait analysis expert who can actually fix their pain or problem. And then there are those who have a 45 minute home exercise program that they need to do to keep their problems at bay, managing, not fixing anything. Or, they spend an hour a week on the web reading article after article on what are the top 4 exercises for iliotibial band syndrome for example. They shop for the newest Graston practitioner, the newest kinesio taping pattern, Voodoo bands, breathing patterns, compression socks etc. And sometimes they are the ones that say they still don't have a problem.You get the drift. Gosh darn it, find someone who knows what the hell they are doing and can help you fix the issues that are causing the problem. And yes, some of the above accoutrements may be assistive in that journey.

I have dealt with this unique toe off issue very frequently. Once you see something enough times, you learn all of the variations and subtle nuances that a problem can take on. But, trying to fit everyone into a similar solution model is where the novice coach, trainer or clinician will get into trouble. Trust us, it all starts with an examination, a true clinical physical examination. If one leaves the investigatory process to a series of screens or functional movement patterns, “activation” attempts, digital gait analysis or strength tests one is juggling chainsaws and the outcome you want is often not likely to occur. There is nothing wrong with making these components part of the investigation process, but on their own, they are not enough to get the honest answer many times. Of course, Ivo and i were not able to jump the pond and examine this runner with our own eyes and hands so today’s dialogue was merely to offer this runner some food for thought to open their mind to our thought process, in the hopes that they can find someone to help them solve the underlying problem and not merely make the gait look cleaner. Making someone’s walking or running gait look cleaner is not hard, but making it subconsciously competent and clean (without thought or effort) requires a fix to the underlying problem. We can ALMOST guarantee you that the solution here to this runner’s form issue is not wholly at the foot that looks in toed and slanted. Merely working on their foot strike would be so remedial and corrupt that it would a crime.

Dr. Shawn Allen, one of the gait guys

#gait, #gaitproblems, #crossovergait, #gaitanalysis, #gluteweakness, #toeoff

Normal walking and running have a certain degree of vertical oscillation, but we do not want too much

Normal walking and running have a certain degree of vertical oscillation, but we do not want too much, we want the body to move along mostly horizontal path but we do need some dampening of impact loads. We do not want to waste too much energy bouncing up and down. This is mitigated quite a bit by hip and knee flexion, the knee is well positioned to do this the easiest in many cases. Pronation and ankle dorsiflexion do dampen loads as well.

Ivo and I just recorded a class on leg length discrepancies. Here are some factors to keep in mind if there is even the smallest leg length discrepancy, anatomic or functional.

-the short leg may hyperextend at the knee , externally rotate at the hip, as well as supinate the foot (this supination is relative ankle plantarflexion, which can set up increased protective tone in calf complex and reduced strength and exposure to anterior compartment).

-the long leg side may knee flex , internally rotate at the hip, and as well as pronate at the foot (this is relative ankle Dorsiflexion)

Both of these scenarios can be going on at the same time on either leg, or it can be only on one leg. We are not perfectly symmetrical organisms, so these things can set up to help us run and walk more effortlessly, to compensate to get the head and neck properly positioned (normalizing the visual and vestibular centers on the horizon) for balance and movement through the 3 cardinal planes, and to compensate around challenging anatomy or biomechanics.

This is a complex machine, with infinite abilities to compensate and cope. But what we see is the compensation, not the problem. The joint range losses in one joint, the excesses in another, the weakness in one area, the over protection in another, the failure to tolerate loads in another, are all ways of coping and keeping us moving, . . . . . . but sometimes at a cost. . . . . pain.

shawn and ivo, the gait guys

Increased unilateral foot pronation and its effects upward into the chain.

Increased unilateral foot pronation affects lower limbs and pelvic biomechanics during walking. Nothing earth shaking here, we should all know this as fact. When a foot pronates more excessively, the arch can flatten more, and this can accentuate a leg length differential between the 2 legs. But it is important to note that when pronation is more excessive, it usually carries with it more splay of the medial tripod as the talus also excessively plantarflexes, adducts and medially rotates. This action carries with it a plantar-ward drive of the navicular, medial cuneiforms and medial metatarsals (translation, flattening of the longitudinal arch). These actions force the distal tibia to follow that medially spinning and adducting talus and thus forces the hip to accommodate to these movements. And, where the hip goes, the pelvis must follow . . . . and so much adaptive compensations.
So could a person say that sometimes a temporary therapeutic orthotic might only be warranted on just one foot ? Yes, of course, one could easily reason that out.
-Shawn Allen, one of The Gait Guys

#gait, #gaitanalysis, #gaitproblems, #thegaitguys, #LLD, #leglength, #pronation, #archcollapse, #orthotics, #gaitcompensations, #hippain, #hipbiomechanics

Gait Posture. 2015 Feb;41(2):395-401. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2014.10.025. Epub 2014 Nov 3.
Increased unilateral foot pronation affects lower limbs and pelvic biomechanics during walking.
Resende RA1, Deluzio KJ2, Kirkwood RN3, Hassan EA4, Fonseca ST5.

Why is that joint range of motion absent? Here are some thoughts.

Photo courtesy of Pixabay.com

Photo courtesy of Pixabay.com

Is this how you think ? It is how we approach puzzles. . . .

Said client has a loss of internal hip rotation (pick any joint for that matter). . . . .

-is the loss of rotation present because they cannot get the rotation range because there is weakness of the internal rotators . . .

- or perhaps external rotators more dominant, combined with the weakness of the internal rotators

-or, is the loss there because of neuro-protective shortness/tightness because the brain feels that the said internal rotation is a vulnerable range (pain, instability), a range where it cannot protect the joint ?

-or, is it a combination of the above? (not to dismiss other processes of course, such as pelvis, knee or foot mechanical issues, OA, pain etc).

If one does not examine a client, how are they supposed to know this all important information?

*What shows up on a functional screen is merely what they are capable of doing/ recruiting/ engaging. It does not tell you why, nor narrow down the causal possibilities. Hence, driving more internal rotation range is silly, driving more strength into the internal rotator is likewise silly. And, merely adding global strength just might provide the overall presentation with more armor, a better coping strategy. Hence, strength first is not always a brilliant solution.

IF all you have is a hammer, everything is going to look like a nail, or you'll at least treat everything like a simple nail.

Coordination of leg swing, thorax rotations, and pelvis rotations during gait: The organisation of total body angular momentum

"In walking faster than 3 km/h, transverse pelvic rotation lengthens the step (“pelvic step”).
The shift in pelvis–thorax coordination from in-phase to out of phase with increasing velocity was found to depend on the pelvis beginning to move in-phase with the femur, while the thorax continued to counter rotate with respect to the femur. "

We are always trying to bring greater understanding to this group at TGG regarding gait mechanics. One must understand the implications of rotational work, and anti-rotational work on the phasic and antiphasic nature of the thorax and the pelvis. We have talked about becoming more phasic when there is spine pain. With today's study, we delve just al little deeper, particularly noting how the pelvis and the femur moving together first, before that is offset by the antiphasic nature of the thorax at higher speeds of gait.
This article uses the terms in phase and out of phase. We have learned over time that those terms to relate more so the description of how the limbs are, or are not, pairing up when a couple is walking together. None the less, the reader here should understand how they are referring to out of phase as antiphasic.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/…/article/pii/S096663620700135X

 

Internal hip rotation and low back pain.

Internal hip rotation and low back pain.

No brain surgery here if you have been on our station for the last several years. We pound home the critical importance of internal hip rotation all the time, here and in our clinic.
When the foot is on the ground, loading, the opposite leg is in swing. Part of this swing phase requires the hemipelvis on that swing side to also advance forward as well. This means that the stance phase leg will see the pelvis rotating atop of the static femoral head, this rotation is internal hip rotation. If one does not have sufficient internal hip rotation then the heel will be lifted prematurely, the foot might undergo an adductory twist (the heel moves medially into adduction which can look like the foot spinning "relatively" outward into external rotation) to name just a few (of many possible) pattern consequences. The loads can also move up into the lumbar spine, because, if the rotation is not there in the hip, or not buffered there, it either moves down into the limb or up into the pelvis and spine, or both. There are many strategies and patterns of loading responses available to the framework, it is your job to find them, source out the problem, and remedy. One must look for and understand the importance of sufficient internal hip rotation in your client, and the ramifications when it is not sufficiently present.
This study brings this principle to mind.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26751745

Jumping height seems to depend on limb position.


In this study of 12 classical female ballet dancers, jump height was tested in both turn out and in a neutral hip position. This study was essentially looking at the effects of external hip rotation turn out on lower limb kinematics. The study seemed to control for forward trunk lean, but it is unclear if this included anterior or pelvis tilt pre-posturing. After all, we know very well that anterior pelvis tilt (APT) will significantly inhibit gluteal function (go ahead, dump into APT and try to fire your glutes ! Nadda !)

Here are the study results:
"The dancers jumped lower in the TJ (turn out) than in the NJ (neutral). The knee extensor and hip abductor torques were smaller, whereas the hip external rotator torque was larger in the TJ than in the NJ. The work done by the hip joint moments in the sagittal plane was 0.28 J/(Body mass*Height) and 0.33 J/(Body mass*Height) in the TJ and NJ, respectively. The joint work done by the lower limbs were not different between the two jumps. These differences resulted from different planes in which the lower limb flexion-extension occurred, i.e. in the sagittal or frontal plane. This would prevent the forward lean of the trunk by decreasing the hip joint work in the sagittal plane and reduce the knee extensor torque in the jump."

So, when was the last time your sport allowed you to jump cleanly from the neutral hip and pelvis position? Not likely right ?! So, our rehab and our training must include non-neutral drills and skills, since that is where we live most of the time in our sporting and active lives.

Sports Biomech. 2017 Mar;16(1):87-101. doi: 10.1080/14763141.2016.1205122. Epub 2016 Jul 14.
Comparison of lower limb kinetics during vertical jumps in turnout and neutral foot positions by classical ballet dancers.

Imura A1, Iino Y1.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27418231

Your big toe is impairing your limb rotation.

Hallux limitus and impaired limb rotation.
No rocket science here, but always good to remember the mechanical principles.
If you cannot get over the medial foot tripod cleanly, for whatever reason, be it loss of 1st MPJ ROM (hallux limitus) or because of pain or forefoot typing issues, or you will be impairing normal rotation of the entire limb. In the above cases, remaining perhaps in more relative external limb rotation, impacting gluteal function. But, going too fast and too far over the medial foot tripod without controlled loading through that region can be just as detrimental, too much internal spin. Stuff we pound sand on all the time.
 

J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2011 Nov-Dec;101(6):467-74.

Hallux limitus and its relationship with the internal rotational pattern of the lower limb.

Lafuente G1, Munuera PV, Dominguez G, Reina M, Lafuente B.

A return to "the Kickstand Effect". So your foot is turned out, externally rotated ?

Amputee War Veteran Sergeant Christopher Melendez Became a Pro Wrestler Read more at http://www.craveonline.com/mandatory/1053779-standing-tall-how-amputee-war-veteran-christopher-melendez-beca#XeD2LrZ2xmtXQ6um.99

Amputee War Veteran Sergeant Christopher Melendez Became a Pro Wrestler
Read more at http://www.craveonline.com/mandatory/1053779-standing-tall-how-amputee-war-veteran-christopher-melendez-beca#XeD2LrZ2xmtXQ6um.99

Why is my foot turned out ?  A 3rd return to the solitary externally rotated foot.

Below you will find our 2 prior articles on this topic, but this is a relatable concept to other thing which we have embedded in many of our blog posts and podcasts over the last decade of sharing what we know.

In the photo above the brave Army Veteran Sergeant Melendez one can see the concept brilliantly as he only has one limb.  One can see the concept in full play, he must balance his body mass over one point, not two like the rest of us lucky folk.  In trying to balance over one point, if the foot is straight forward (if one is blessed with close to neutral torsional bone alignment) one will have good stability in the sagittal plane (forward /back) but will be at risk to fall, drift or sway into the frontal plane. Here Sergeant Melendez displays the foot and limb turn out into the frontal plane so that he can use the quadriceps to help him protect into that frontal plane, plus, by situating his base posture in more of an externally rotated position (likely losing internal rotation capability over time, unless forcibly maintained through specific exercises) he can more fully and skillfully engage all 3 divisions of the gluteus maximus and medius, and perhaps hamstrings and adductors and who knows what else, to maintain a more stable and likely less fatiguable posture. Go ahead, try it for yourself, this is easier to balance and maintain that a straight sagittal foot posturing. The one trouble he might have, is not deviating too much, or too often, into a frontal plane drift hip-pelvis posture. This will put much aberrant compressive load onto the roof of the femoral head-acetabular interval, where most of us begin a degenerative hip arthritis journey, unfortunately. 

Side note:   So you might think your client has FAI ?  Maybe start here, our thinking might lead you done a helpful path to get started. Search our blog for FAI as well.

here are the 2 prior articles on the topic, with video.  Watch for this one, it is everywhere out in the world, walking amongst us.  
Thank you for your service Sergeant Melendez.  Here is the article written by K. Thor Jensen, on Crave Online.  

https://thegaitguys.tumblr.com/post/14262793786/gait-problem-the-solitary-externally-rotated

https://thegaitguys.tumblr.com/post/40617674450/a-return-to-the-solitary-externally-rotated-foot

Shawn & Ivo, The Gait Guys

Podcast 117: The glutes in rotation

Key tag words:

running, glutes, climbing, hip rotation, movement patterns, hominids, bone density, gait

Links:

http://traffic.libsyn.com/thegaitguys/pod_117ffinal.mp3

http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/episode-117

www.thegaitguys.com

That is our website, and it is all you need to remember. Everything you want, need and wish for is right there on the site.

Interested in our stuff ? Want to buy some of our lectures or our National Shoe Fit program? Click here (thegaitguys.com or thegaitguys.tumblr.com) and you will come to our websites. In the tabs, you will find tabs for STORE, SEMINARS, BOOK etc. We also lecture every 3rd Wednesday of the month on onlineCE.com. We have an extensive catalogued library of our courses there, you can take them any time for a nominal fee (~$20).
 
Our podcast is on iTunes, Soundcloud, and just about every other podcast harbor site, just google "the gait guys podcast", you will find us.

 

Show Notes:

3D printed talus replacement surgery helps patients regain up to 75% normal ankle function
http://www.3ders.org/articles/20160504-3d-printed-talus-replacement-surgery-helps-patients-regain-up-to-normal-ankle-function.html

http://pubs.rsna.org/doi/full/10.1148/rg.2015140156

Stopping Exercise Decreases Brain Blood Flow
http://neurosciencenews.com/exercise-brain-blood-flow-4927/?utm_medium=email&utm_source=flipboard

Babies Who Walk Earlier May Have Stronger Bones in Their Teens
http://news.health.com/2016/06/02/babys-early-walking-may-mean-stronger-bones-as-teen/

NEW EVIDENCE SUGGESTS OUR HOMINID COUSIN LUCY LOVED CLIMBING TREES
http://www.popsci.com/new-evidence-that-our-hominid-cousin-lucy-loved-climbing-trees

Glutes as internal hip rotators
https://www.thegaitguys.com/thedailyblog/2016/12/7/the-glutes-are-in-fact-great-internal-hip-rotators-too-open-your-mind

Retraining movement patterns, mind or muscles or vision ?
http://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/health-and-fitness/fitness/study-suggests-visual-feedback-doesnt-speed-up-learning-of-new-movements-health/article33142789/

Podcast #115: Brain logging injuries and patterns

We go deep on how injuries get logged deep in the CNS, what to do and how to get around it all.  Join us today !


Show sponsors:
newbalancechicago.com
altrarunning.com

www.thegaitguys.com
That is our website, and it is all you need to remember. Everything you want, need and wish for is right there on the site.
Interested in our stuff ? Want to buy some of our lectures or our National Shoe Fit program? Click here (thegaitguys.com or thegaitguys.tumblr.com) and you will come to our websites. In the tabs, you will find tabs for STORE, SEMINARS, BOOK etc. We also lecture every 3rd Wednesday of the month on onlineCE.com. We have an extensive catalogued library of our courses there, you can take them any time for a nominal fee (~$20).
 
Our podcast is on iTunes, Soundcloud, and just about every other podcast harbor site, just google "the gait guys podcast", you will find us.

* Podcast Links: 

http://traffic.libsyn.com/thegaitguys/pod_115f.mp3


http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-115-brain-logging-injuries-and-patterns

_______________________________________
Show Notes:

Imagining workouts can improve strength
http://globalnews.ca/news/2885514/imagining-a-workout-may-be-almost-as-good-as-the-real-thing/

Your injuries are not forgotten
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/312665.php

A test question from Dr. Allen, see how you do with this photo critical thinking.  When you walk on the beach you are on a slope. The leg closer to the water naturally drops down to a lower surface.   Here is the game …  to keep the pelvis level on the horizon, one would have to:  a. shorten the water side leg  b. lengthen the water side leg  c. pronate the water side leg  d. supinate the water side leg  e. lengthen the beach side leg  f. shorten the beach side leg  g. pronate the beach side leg  h. supinate the beach side leg  i. externally rotate the water side leg  j. internally rotate the water side leg  k. externally rotate the beach side leg  l. internally rotate the beach side leg  m. flex the water side hip  n. extend the water side hip  o. flex the beach side hip  p. extend the beach side hip   ******Ok, Stop scrolling right now !!!!!       List all the letters that apply first.    You should have many letters.  ***  And here is the kicker for bonus points , the letters can be unscrambled to spell the name of one of  the most popular of the Beatles . Name that Beatle.  .  .  .  don’t look, figure it out before you scroll down further. It is important you try to work through the question and its foundational principles.  .  .  .  .  .  .     Answer: B, D, F , G, I ,L , N, O  * now, more importantly, make sure you think of these issues in all your clients with leg length discrepancies, both anatomic and function and when the pelvis is not level. This is the most important take away from today’s test question. If you got the answers correct, you have the knowledge to implement. If you did not get the answer correct, you need to hammer down the HOW and WHY of the answer before you start playing with people’s bodies putting in heel lifts (boooo), sole lifts, orthotics, postings etc. If you do not have the foundation to play by the rules, you should not be playing.  ok, we were messing with ya on the Beatles thing. Sorry.  Dr. Shawn Allen

A test question from Dr. Allen, see how you do with this photo critical thinking.

When you walk on the beach you are on a slope. The leg closer to the water naturally drops down to a lower surface. 

Here is the game …  to keep the pelvis level on the horizon, one would have to:

a. shorten the water side leg

b. lengthen the water side leg

c. pronate the water side leg

d. supinate the water side leg

e. lengthen the beach side leg

f. shorten the beach side leg

g. pronate the beach side leg

h. supinate the beach side leg

i. externally rotate the water side leg

j. internally rotate the water side leg

k. externally rotate the beach side leg

l. internally rotate the beach side leg

m. flex the water side hip

n. extend the water side hip

o. flex the beach side hip

p. extend the beach side hip

******Ok, Stop scrolling right now !!!!!  

List all the letters that apply first.

You should have many letters.  *** And here is the kicker for bonus points, the letters can be unscrambled to spell the name of one of the most popular of the Beatles. Name that Beatle.

.

.

.

don’t look, figure it out before you scroll down further. It is important you try to work through the question and its foundational principles.

.

.

.

.

.

.


Answer: B, D, F , G, I ,L , N, O

* now, more importantly, make sure you think of these issues in all your clients with leg length discrepancies, both anatomic and function and when the pelvis is not level. This is the most important take away from today’s test question. If you got the answers correct, you have the knowledge to implement. If you did not get the answer correct, you need to hammer down the HOW and WHY of the answer before you start playing with people’s bodies putting in heel lifts (boooo), sole lifts, orthotics, postings etc. If you do not have the foundation to play by the rules, you should not be playing.

ok, we were messing with ya on the Beatles thing. Sorry.

Dr. Shawn Allen

Yes, you are looking INSIDE this toe. That IS a screw and metal plate in that toe.    What kind of stuff finds its way into your office ? I get all kinds of things it seems, at least once a day something comes in that makes me scratch my head.   This client just wanted my opinion and thoughts on their toe and their gait once they are ambulating again. They have had multiple surgeries to this poor foot. You can see multiple scars over multiple digits and metatarsals.  This is the 3rd surgery to the big toe, the last 2 have been attempts at correcting failed prior surgeries. This is obviously the last straw surgery, total fusion of the metatarsophalangeal joint.  What is interesting in this case is that this plate was taken out about 4 weeks ago, and the skin was stretched back over and the wound closed up (forgot to take update photo for you). I saw it yesterday, and I was amazed at how healed up the area was. They are months post op now, and they can load the toe heavily now, that is always amazing to me. The body’s healing ability is a miracle. Of course, if you have been with us here long enough you will know that my “concern button” immediately got pushed but the client was proactive and asked the question before my  oral diarrhea of concerns  started.  So, they wanted to know about their gait and what to watch out for.  Off the top of your head, without thinking, you should be able to rattle off the following:   impaired toe off   premature heel rise   watchful eye on achilles issues   impaired hip extension and gluteal function   impaired terminal ankle plantar flexion (because they cannot access the synergists FHL and FHB)   impaired terminal ankle dorsi flexion (because they cannot access the synergists EHL and EHB)   lateral toe off which will promote ankle and foot inversion, which will challenge the peronei   frontal plane hip-pelvis drift because of the lateral toe off and lack of glute function   possible low back pain/tightness because of the  frontal plane pelvis drift and from altered hip extension motor patterning (and glute impairment)   possible knee pain from tracking challenges because they cannot complete medial tripod loading and thus sufficient pronation to internally spin the limb to get the knee to sagittal loading   impaired arm swing, more notable contralaterally    There is more, but that is enough for now. You need to know total body mechanics, movement patterns, normal gait cycle events (you have to know normal to know abnormal) and more. You have to know what normal is to understand when you are looking at abnormal.  * So, dial this back to something more simple, a “stubbed toe”, a painful sesamoid, painful pronation or a turf toe or hallux limitus.  They will all have the same list of complications that need to be evaluated, considered and addressed. This list should convey the importance that if your client has low back pain, examining the big toe motion is critical. Also, if you are just looking at the foot and toe in these cases, pack your bags … .  you don’t belong here. If you are just adjusting feet and toes and playing with orthotics while the list above does not constantly file back and forth through your brain, again, pack all your bags, grab your cat and leave town (just kidding, try reading more and get to some seminars).     If you know the complicated things, then the simple things become … … . . simple.     Your local treadmill gait analysis guru should know all of this if they are going to recommend shoes and exercises. Shame on them if there is no physical exam however. The data roadmap from the gait analysis software print out is not going to get you even out of the driveway let alone down the street. The data is going to tell you what you are doing to compensate, not tell you what is wrong. You must know anatomy, biomechanics, neurology, orthopedics and how to apply them to get the recipe right, not just which shoe in a store will unload the medial tripod of the foot or which exercise will lengthen your stride on the left.   … .  sorry for the rant, too much coffee this morning, obviously.  Shawn Allen, one of the gait guys

Yes, you are looking INSIDE this toe. That IS a screw and metal plate in that toe. 

What kind of stuff finds its way into your office ? I get all kinds of things it seems, at least once a day something comes in that makes me scratch my head. 

This client just wanted my opinion and thoughts on their toe and their gait once they are ambulating again. They have had multiple surgeries to this poor foot. You can see multiple scars over multiple digits and metatarsals.  This is the 3rd surgery to the big toe, the last 2 have been attempts at correcting failed prior surgeries. This is obviously the last straw surgery, total fusion of the metatarsophalangeal joint.  What is interesting in this case is that this plate was taken out about 4 weeks ago, and the skin was stretched back over and the wound closed up (forgot to take update photo for you). I saw it yesterday, and I was amazed at how healed up the area was. They are months post op now, and they can load the toe heavily now, that is always amazing to me. The body’s healing ability is a miracle. Of course, if you have been with us here long enough you will know that my “concern button” immediately got pushed but the client was proactive and asked the question before my oral diarrhea of concerns started.

So, they wanted to know about their gait and what to watch out for.  Off the top of your head, without thinking, you should be able to rattle off the following:

  • impaired toe off
  • premature heel rise
  • watchful eye on achilles issues
  • impaired hip extension and gluteal function
  • impaired terminal ankle plantar flexion (because they cannot access the synergists FHL and FHB)
  • impaired terminal ankle dorsi flexion (because they cannot access the synergists EHL and EHB)
  • lateral toe off which will promote ankle and foot inversion, which will challenge the peronei
  • frontal plane hip-pelvis drift because of the lateral toe off and lack of glute function
  • possible low back pain/tightness because of the  frontal plane pelvis drift and from altered hip extension motor patterning (and glute impairment)
  • possible knee pain from tracking challenges because they cannot complete medial tripod loading and thus sufficient pronation to internally spin the limb to get the knee to sagittal loading
  • impaired arm swing, more notable contralaterally

There is more, but that is enough for now. You need to know total body mechanics, movement patterns, normal gait cycle events (you have to know normal to know abnormal) and more. You have to know what normal is to understand when you are looking at abnormal.

* So, dial this back to something more simple, a “stubbed toe”, a painful sesamoid, painful pronation or a turf toe or hallux limitus.  They will all have the same list of complications that need to be evaluated, considered and addressed. This list should convey the importance that if your client has low back pain, examining the big toe motion is critical. Also, if you are just looking at the foot and toe in these cases, pack your bags … .  you don’t belong here. If you are just adjusting feet and toes and playing with orthotics while the list above does not constantly file back and forth through your brain, again, pack all your bags, grab your cat and leave town (just kidding, try reading more and get to some seminars).

If you know the complicated things, then the simple things become … … . . simple.

Your local treadmill gait analysis guru should know all of this if they are going to recommend shoes and exercises. Shame on them if there is no physical exam however. The data roadmap from the gait analysis software print out is not going to get you even out of the driveway let alone down the street. The data is going to tell you what you are doing to compensate, not tell you what is wrong. You must know anatomy, biomechanics, neurology, orthopedics and how to apply them to get the recipe right, not just which shoe in a store will unload the medial tripod of the foot or which exercise will lengthen your stride on the left. 

… .  sorry for the rant, too much coffee this morning, obviously.

Shawn Allen, one of the gait guys

Pronating around internal hip rotation loss.

This is a remedial principle, but it is always nice to capture it on video like this. Watch this clients left foot. On initial impressions you might just say too much foot pronation, and you would be right. Some of you might say abductor-adductor twist of the foot. These are all correct. But, if we told you that this was a hip complaint client, and lack of internal hip rotation this foot action should be a simple 60Watt “light bulb moment” (translation: “epiphany”), certainly not a 100Watt moment (but for some it might be).  

This client cannot internally rotate through the hip adequately, so they have found the opposite end of the limb to internally rotate through.  They collapse through the arch/tripod, which essentially in the crudest of analogies “internally screws the limb” into the ground.  They are finding internal femur rotation through foot pronation.  Internal hip rotation is being achieved from a bottom up process if you will. Pronation through the foot complex is adduction, medial rotation and plantarflexion of the talus which will carry the tibia (and thus the femur) with it into internal rotation.  There is a problem in many clients who find that extra little bit of rotation at the hip via a foot/ankle cheat.  That problem is one of corruption of the pelvis antiphasic motion of the pelvis, they will most often dump the same hip laterally and thus drift into the frontal plane instead of achieving the antiphasic motion of the pelvis.  This will decouple the rotation of the torso in the opposite rotation of the pelvis, and thus begin the corruption of arm swing.  Want to take it another level deeper ? Ok, eat this for lunch……. asymmetrical thoracic rotation from side to side will set up. This will mean more work through scapulothoracic stabilization and cervical rotation on the side of the thoracic rotation deficit.  Still not deep enough ? Ok, evaluate their respiration symmetry.   Too many are doing respiratory work before hip rotation is clean and symmetrical, especially during gait that necessitates 1000′s of engraining steps a day.  If the hips are not clean, gait is not clean, and that means repetitive arm swing-thoracic-respiratory mechanics are not clean.

If you want to truly fix someones rooted problems, you have to be willing and able to go down the rabbit hole. 

Shawn Allen, one of the gait guys

The Great toe’s effect on external hip rotation.

We have a simple video for you today. 

When we assess our clients for gait and locomotion we do a quick screen of all the big player joints, from the toes at least up into the thoracic spine to start. Loss of mobility/range of motion means probable functional impairment. 

In this video we display the effects of the Windlass Mechanism of the great toe. A windlass mechanism according to Wikipedia is:

a type of winch used especially on ships to hoist anchors and haul on mooring lines and, especially formerly, to lower buckets into and hoist them up from wells.

In this case, dorsiflexing the big toe spools the plantarfascia and flexor hallucis longus and brevis around the metatarsophalangeal joint (1st. MTPJ), thus pulling the heel towards the forefoot thus raising the arch. When the arch raises, the talus moves cephalad (upwards) and because of the supinatory movement orientation, it spins the tibial externally which in turn spins the femur externally. This is what you see in this video, note the blue dots being carried laterally with the limb external rotation.

The point here today, if you have loss of external hip rotation, it could be crying for you to evaluate the range of motion of the 1st MTP joint , it could be crying for you to evaluate the skill of toe extension, strength or endurance or all of the above. Impairment of the 1st MTP has great inroads into ineffective locomotion. You must have decent range of motion to effectively supinate, to effectively toe off, to externally rotate the limb, to effectively acquire hip extension to maximize gluteal use.  Thus, one could easily say that impaired hallux/great toe extension (skill, ability, endurance, strength) can impair hip extension (and clean hip extension patterning) and result in possible terminal propulsive gait extension occurring through the lumbar spine instead of through the hip joint proper.

Think of the effects of two asymmetrical great toe extensions, comparing the great toe left to right. Asymmetry in the limbs, pelvis, hip extension and perhaps worse, the lumbar spine, is a virtual guarantee.  Compare hallux extension side to side, if you can achieve symmetry through skill, endurance and strength retraining, you must do it. If you have a hallux limitus, a bunion or anything that impairs the symmetry of great toe extension side to side, you have some interesting work to do. 

You have to know what you have in your client, and know what it means to their locomotion.  Seeing or recognizing what you have must translate into understanding and action. 

Play mental games with clinical entities.  In this case, if at terminal toe off you did not have full hallux extension like in this client, and thus you did not get that last little final external rotation spin in the limb at the hip … . . what could that do to your gait ? Go tape your toe and limit terminal extension (terminal dorsiflexion) and walk around, to feel it in yourself is to get first hand experience. 

Shawn Allen, one of the gait guys

Medial or lateral foot placement ?

Foot placement matters. We have repeatedly beaten this topic in our dialogues on “the cross over gait” for years now.
Lack of Stability often, if perhaps not always, limits mobility.
Mediolateral stability can be efficiently controlled through appropriate foot placement. This study hypothesized that humans control mediolateral foot placement through swing leg muscle activity, basing this control on the mechanical state of the contralateral stance leg. Thus, obviously, if thestance phase limb has sensory-motor deficiencies, which might be easily translated into “balance” or control issues in single leg stance evaluation, this will impact the swing leg and thus subsequent foot placement.
In this study, “During Unperturbed walking, greater swing-phase gluteus medius (GM) activity was associated with more lateral foot placement.”
“The Perturbed walking results indicated a causal relationship between stance leg mechanics and swing-phase GM activity. Perturbations that reduced the mediolateral CoM displacement from the stance foot caused reductions in swing-phase GM activity and more medial foot placement." 

The swing leg is taking cues from the stance leg mechanics. If stance phase has challenges, the swing limb will be forced to accommodate and adapt, and that means altered foot placement.  

Once again, remember, (broken record moment)……. "what you see is not your client’s problem, it is their strategy to get around/compensate for the problem”. Don’t you dare correct your client’s foot placement without examining why they are doing what they are doing. Get to the root of the problem you are “seeing”.

-Dr. Shawn Allen


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24790168

J Neurophysiol. 2014 Jul 15;112(2):374-83. doi: 10.1152/jn.00138.2014. Epub 2014 Apr 30.A neuromechanical strategy for mediolateral foot placement in walking humans.Rankin BL1, Buffo SK1, Dean JC2.

Rearfoot to Hip Pathomechanical considerations.

In normal gait, the rearfoot strikes in slight inversion and then quickly moves through eversion in the frontal plane to help with the midfoot through forefoot pronation phases of gait. Some sources would refer this rearfoot eversion as the rearfoot pronatory phase, after all. pronation can occur at the rear, mid or forefoot. As with all pronation in all areas, when it occurs too fast, too soon or too much, it can be a problem and rearfoot eversion is no different.  If uncontrolled via muscles such as through tibialis posterior eccentric capabilities (Skill, endurance, strength) or from a structural presentation of Rearfoot Valgus pain can arise. 

From a scenario like in the video above, where a more rearfoot varus presentation is observed,  where the lateral to medial pronation progression is excessive and extreme in terms of speed, duration and magnitude this can also create too much lateral to medial foot, ankle and knee movement.  This will often accompany unchecked movements of internal spin through the hip. So one should see that these pronation and spin issues can occur and be controlled from the bottom or from the top, and hopefully adequately from both in a normal scenario.  It is when there is a biomechanical limitation or insufficiency somewhere in the chain that problems can arise. And remember, pain does not have to occur where the failure occurs, in fact it usually does not. So when you have knee pain from an apparent valgus posturing knee, make sure you look above and below that knee.  Also, keep in mind that as discussed last week in the blog post on ischiofemoral impingment syndrome (link), these spin scenarios can be quite frequently found with ipsilateral frontal plane lateral deviations (bumping of the hip-pelvis outside the vertical stacking of the foot-knee-hip stacking line). This stacking failure can also be the source of many of the issues discussed above, so be sure you are looking locally and globally. And remember, what you see is not the problem, it is their compensation around their deeper problem quite often.

If you have not read the blog post from last week on ischiofemoral impingement syndrome you might not know where the components of the cross over gait come in to play here nor how a rearfoot problem can present with a hip impingement scenario, so I can recommend that article one more time.

One last thing, just in case you think this stuff is easy to work through, remember that these rearfoot varus and valgus problems, and pronation rates. and limb spin rates are all highly variable when someone has varying degrees of femoral torsion, tibial torsion or talar torsion. Each case is different, and each will be unique in their presentation and in the uniqueness of the treatment recipe. I just thought I would throw that in to make your head spin a little in case it wasn’t already.

For example, a case where the rearfoot is a semi rigid varus, with tibial varum, and frontal plane lateral pelvic drift with components of cross over gait (ie. the video case above) will require a different treatment plan and strategy than the same rearfoot varus in a presentation of femoral torsion challenges and genu valgum. Same body parts, different orientations, different mechanics, different treatment recipe.  

So, you can fiddle with a dozen pair of shoes to find one that helps minimize your pains, you can go for massages and hope for the best, you can go and get activated over and over, you can try yet another new orthotic, you can go to a running clinic and try some form changes, throw in some yoga or pilates, compression wear, voodoo bands and gosh who knows what else. Sometimes they are the answer or stumble across it … or you can find someone who understands the pieces of the puzzle and how to piece a reasonable recipe together to bake the cake just right. We do not always get there, but we try.  

Want more ? Try our National Shoe Fit certification program for a starter or try our online teleseminars at www.onlinece.com (we did a one hour course on the RearFoot just the other night, and it was recorded over at onlineCE.com).

Dr. Shawn Allen,  of the gait guys


Reference:

Man Ther.  2014 Oct;19(5):379-85. doi: 10.1016/j.math.2013.10.003. Epub 2013 Oct 29.Clinical measures of hip and foot-ankle mechanics as predictors of rearfoot motion and posture.  Souza TR et al.

Health professionals are frequently interested in predicting rearfoot pronation during weight-bearing activities. Previous inconsistent results regarding the ability of clinical measures to predict rearfoot kinematics may have been influenced by the neglect of possible combined effects of alignment and mobility at the foot-ankle complex and by the disregard of possible influences of hip mobility on foot kinematics. The present study tested whether using a measure that combines frontal-plane bone alignment and mobility at the foot-ankle complex and a measure of hip internal rotation mobility predicts rearfoot kinematics, in walking and upright stance. Twenty-three healthy subjects underwent assessment of forefoot-shank angle (which combines varus bone alignments at the foot-ankle complex with inversion mobility at the midfoot joints), with a goniometer, and hip internal rotation mobility, with an inclinometer. Frontal-plane kinematics of the rearfoot was assessed with a three-dimensional system, during treadmill walking and upright stance. Multivariate linear regressions tested the predictive strength of these measures to inform about rearfoot kinematics. The measures significantly predicted (p ≤ 0.041) mean eversion-inversion position, during walking (r(2) = 0.40) and standing (r(2) = 0.31), and eversion peak in walking (r(2) = 0.27). Greater values of varus alignment at the foot-ankle complex combined with inversion mobility at the midfoot joints and greater hip internal rotation mobility are related to greater weight-bearing rearfoot eversion. Each measure (forefoot-shank angle and hip internal rotation mobility) alone and their combination partially predicted rearfoot kinematics. These measures may help detecting foot-ankle and hip mechanical variables possibly involved in an observed rearfoot motion or posture.

Podcast 74: Cross Fit: More on Squatting and Hip Torsions, Part 2

Lots of great hip, squatting and biomechanics in this weeks show !

*Show sponsor: www.newbalancechicago.com

A. Link to our server: 

http://traffic.libsyn.com/thegaitguys/pod_75.f_74.mp3

Direct Download: 

http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-74

B. iTunes link:

https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-gait-guys-podcast/id559864138

C. Gait Guys online /download store (National Shoe Fit Certification and more !) :

http://store.payloadz.com/results/results.aspx?m=80204

D. other web based Gait Guys lectures:

www.onlinece.com   type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen,  ”Biomechanics”

______________

Today’s Show notes:

Diving deeper into crossfit’s squatting, lunges, leg press.

 Walking in sync makes enemies seem less scary

 
 

The Next Big Thing In Sports Data: Predicting (And Avoiding) Injuries

http://m.fastcompany.com/3034655/healthware/the-next-big-thing-in-sports-data-predicting-and-avoiding-injuries

“LER editor’s pick: Hip internal and external rotation are associated with shoulder mechanics in collegiate baseball pitchers. http://ow.ly/zULpO

Michael August 27 at 7:49pm I’m curious to hear some thoughts on this, too. I listened to the podcast and read the blog post by the Gait Guys. I’ve coached CrossFit since 2009 and have owned my own affiliate for the last three years and follow Starrett closely. The cue “knees out” originated in powerlifting and the purpose is to keep people from ending up compensating with a valgus knee position during a squat, which is the most common compensation. Also, CrossFit did a special “Offline Episode” with Starrett, Kilgore, Russel Berger (he represented CrossFit) and two other coaches in which the sole topic was the “knees out” cue. It’s very illuminating for this topic. One interesting thing is that CrossFit does not tell people who go through the level 1 to tell others as a law, knees out. It’s merely a cue to fix a common compensation.
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Do you think I need to replace my shoes?

These shoes appear to be well past their prime, to say the very least ! These poor dogs have the rear and forefoot varus “worn” right into them. You can see this represented particularly easily from the front, look at the lateral sloping of the shoe. It almost appears as if his foot could slide off the outside edge of the shoe. One can easily postulate that an inversion ankle sprain is just one unfortunate step away.

It looks like this medially posted shoe is not working for this fellow (you can see the medial post on the inner edge of the EVA midsole if you look carefully)  If you have questions on the “flare”?/post click here) . The client told us that they are “only a few years old” and planned on running one more ½ marathon in them this spring! Of course we mentioned they should put a office visit on the books the day after that race, because their ankles and knees were likely going to need it !

One can only imagine the lateral (genu varum) forces being placed on the knees, and who knows what kinds of increased shear forces are imparted into the menisci.  The lateral (inversion / varus) forces are going to impart a tendency of external rotation into the hips, and if one is busy externally rotating they are not going to internally rotate the hips when it is necessary to as the pelvis passes over the foot in midstance.  Additionally, an inverted /varus postured foot is more rigid because it is supinated which makes for a poor pronation/shock absorbing foot during the accomodative phase of the stance phase.

There are many more issues we could discuss here. But this was never meant to turn into a diatribe on specific biomechanical flaws, not this time at least.  Just remember this, whatever biomechanical flaws your feet have (and most of us have them) will eventually be pressed into the EVA foam of your shoes. Meaning, in time your shoes will reflect your aberrant flaws biomechanically.  And these newly built-into-the-shoe problems will now magnify the foot’s challenges and can accelerate pathology locally and globally.  Change your shoes often and as we have suggested in older blog posts, please consider having 2 shoes in your regular rotation.  One shoe being older and one being newer. We suggest starting an new shoe into the rotation once the old shoe has 200-250 miles and then alternating shoes every other day.  This way the foot is never seeing an older more deformed shoe for more than a day before getting some correction.  The point here, don’t let a shoe get 400-500 miles on it, in all its deformed glory, and then suddenly force the foot into a sudden biomechanical correction with a brand new shoe.  Abrupt changes lead to abrupt biomechanical demands on the system, so limit them and limit your risk for injury.

PS: Note the nice after-market “venting feature” in the right shoe near the little toe.

What some folks will try to do to save a few bucks…

Ivo and Shawn, The Gait Guys

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Excessive Supination in a marathoner: Shoe Photos !

Simple visual case today.

Look at the right shoe, can you see how it is canted laterally? Can you see the inversion of the rear foot ?  Without a foot in that shoe it means that “the last”, the heel counter and the EVA foam are all destroyed and deformed into this great runner’s compensation pattern. 

They did not have pain however can you determine the problem here from the photos ? We hope your answer is no.  We did a teleseminar last night on www.onlineCE.com on pedograph foot mappings and we talked long and hard about the possible limitations of determining foot problems from foot pressure mappings from things like pedographs and pedobarographs.  Do you use foot scanners ? If so, user beware !  They gather vital and valuable information that you absolutely need but you need the critical clinical information from the client examination to bring the foot issue info full circle.

In this case there was a significant limitation in hip rotation. Which one ? Can you theorize ?  If you said internal rotation you are right. There was a notable loss of internal right hip rotation in his marathoner.  And it is represented in his shoe photo above. Someone who has a loss of internal hip rotation will often (but not always) have difficulties achieving the normal foot pronation required for clean foot mechanics, they will be stuck in a supination tendancy.  If loss of internal rotation can mean loss of pronation then in this case ample external rotation meant excessive supination (or at the very least rear foot inversion). Hence the shoe presentation described at the beginning of this post. (Note: this is what we would refer to as a “Flexible” Rear foot Varus posturing).

So, is this the wrong shoe prescription for this runner ? No, the shoes were prescribed correctly. This is a biomechanical breakdown of a shoe because of a hip functional problem.

Solution: Dump the shoes for a new pair and quickly restore hip function. Keeping these shoes in the mix will promote the bad pattern.  In this case, functional movement and muscle tested assessments revealed specific weakness of the right lower transverse abdominus, right internal abdominal oblique, right TFL, right vastus lateralis and coccygeal division of the g. max.   Yes, all INTERNAL HIP ROTATORS  or stabilizers or synergists of internal hip rotation.  Immediate post treatment remedy revealed near full internal hip rotation and homework was prescribed to ramp those said muscles up further to support the new movement. 

If he had remained in this shoe, the breakdown in the shoe would continue to promote the biomechanical deviations into the previously engrained faulty motor compensatory pattern. 

Shoes, sometimes they are the problem, sometimes the solution and sometimes caught somewhere in between.

Need to get better at this stuff ? Just follow us daily here on The Gait Guys or consider adding the National Shoe Fit Program to your repertoire !  Email us if you are interested or need some help with your interesting cases !

Shawn and Ivo, The Gait Guys