External tibial torsion and lower back pain

How can external tibial torsion and lower back pain possibly be related? Let’s take a quick look at the anatomy and see how.

knees neutral, note external rotation of the right foot and decreased progression angle

knees neutral, note external rotation of the right foot and decreased progression angle

Remember the external tibial torsion is present if we drop a plumbline from the tibial tuberosity and it passes between the first and second metatarsals or more medially. This increases the progression angle of the foot. This occurs due to “over rotation" of the lower extremity during development, often exceeding the 1.5 degrees per year of external rotation per year up to age 15 or occurring for a longer period of time, up to skeletal maturity. It can be uni or bilateral.

note when the foot is neutral, the knee points inward

note when the foot is neutral, the knee points inward

Often, due to the increased progression angle, people will try to "straighten their feet" (ie, decrees their progression angle) to move forward in the sagittal plane. This places the knees to the inside of the sagittal plane which causes medial knee fall and sometimes increased mid and forefoot pronation. This results in increased medial spin of the thigh bilaterally which increases the lumbar lordosis. Combine this with a sway back or anterior pelvic tilt and you have increased pressure on the lumbar facet joints. The facets are designed to carry approximately 20% of the load put in these circumstances are often called upon to carry the much more. This often results in facet imbrication and lower back pain. You can strengthen the abdomen all you like but if you do not change the attitude of the foot, a will often develop lower back pain, especially when the abs fatigue. Now think about if the deformity is unilateral; this will often cause asymmetrical rotation of the pelvis in a clockwise or counter clockwise direction.

So, what can you do you?

Since external tibial torsion is a "hard deformity", we can influence how the bone grows before skeletal maturity but after that will not change significantly with stretching or exercise.

  • You can teach them to walk with an increase in progression angle (ie “duck footed”). This will often keep the knee in the sagittal plane and can be surprisingly well tolerated

  • You can use a foot leveling orthotic or arch support to bolster the arch and change the mechanics of the foot, causing external rotation of the tibia which will often result in a decrease in progression angle in compensation while still keeping the knee in the sagittal plane

  • You could place a full length varus wedge in the shoe which, by inverting the foot, externally rotates the tibia which the person will often compensates for by decreasing there progression angle to keep the knee and the sagittal plane



Dr Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys



#tibialtorsion #lowbackpain #LBP #progressionangle





Sometimes it’s OK for “toes in“ squats

We hear from folks and also read on a lot of blogs and articles about whether your toes should be in or out for squats or other types of activities. The real answer is “it depends”.

What it depends on is the patient’s specific anatomy. That means we need to pay attention to knees and hips and things like femoral and tibial torsion‘s. It’s paramount to keep the knees in the sagittal plane, no matter what the lower extremity orientation is.

When somebody has external tibial torsion (i.e. when you drop a plumbline from there to view tuberosity it passes medial to the line between the second and third or second metatarsal) then having your feet and externally rotated position places the knees in sagittal plane. Having the patient go “toes in” with this type of anatomy will cause both knees to for medially and create patellofemoral tracking issues.

Likewise, like the patient in the video, (Yes, I know I say “external tibial torsion“ at the beginning of the video but the patient has internal tibial torsion as you will see from the remainder of the video) when somebody has internal tibial torsion (I.e. when you drop a plumbline from the tibial tuberosity it passes lateral to the second metatarsal or a line between the second and third metatarsal) you would need to point the toes inward to keep the knees in the sagittal plane as demonstrated in the video. You can also see in the video when her feet are placed “toes out“ they fall outside sagittal plane laterally which creates patellofemoral tracking issues like it was in this particular patient.

So, knees in or knees out? It depends…

Dr. Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys

#internaltibialtorsion #externaltibialtorsion #kneepain #kneesin #kneesout #squats #thegaitguys

External tibial torsion or femoral retrotorsion?

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This young lad presents to your office complaining of bilateral knee discomfort at the medial aspect, just below the patella, particularly when ascending and descending stairs and hills. You narrow it down to abnormal patellar tracking and 2 possibilities of who is driving the bus, but which is it?

Torsions of an extremity are said to exist when they measure two or more standard deviation‘s outside of normal. In external tibial torsion, the shaft of the tibia over rotates more than it’s 1.5° per year from zero at birth to greater than 19°. You are left with a foot that is has an increased progression angle and a center of gravity falls medial to the foot causing abnormal patellar tracking.

Femoral retro torsion is said to exist when the head of the femur over reduces from its 35° angle at birth to less than 8° resulting in severely limited internal rotation of the hips bilaterally. The lower extremity is often externally rotated to compensate.

An easy differential for the 2 is to drop a plumbline from the tibial tuberosity through the foot. This line normally passes through the second or between the second and third metatarsal‘s. If it falls medial to that it is eternal tibial torsion and lateral to that most likely internal tibial torsion or potentially a metatarsus varus or forefoot adductus.

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Another differential would be to perform “Craigs test” and measure how much internal and external rotation of the femur there is at the femoral acetabular articulation.

An easier way to put it is; those with femoral retrotorsion have less hip internal rotation and often increased amounts of external rotation; often they can’t even get past zero, never mind the requisite 4-6 degrees for normal gait. Those with increased internal rotation and diminished external rotation most likely have femoral antetorsion.

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So, Which is it? When his knees are Straightahead, his feet point out; when his feet are straightahead, his knees point inward. A plumbline from the tibial tuberosity passes medial to the second metatarsal. Looking at the pictures, you can see that he is external tibial torsion along with a sandal thong deformity that we talked about last week.

Dr Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys.

#externaltibialtorsion #outturnedfoot #increasedprogressionangle #kneepain #thegaitguys

When the big toes head...East? Whats the deal?

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What is this?

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A sandal gap deformity or hallux varus creates an expanded first interspace between the hallux and the rest of the toes. It is a likened to the gap caused by wearing a sandal but is actually a normal variant. It can occasionally be developmental. In the fetus, it can be a soft marker for other fetal anomalies such as Downs syndrome, an amniotic band or ectrodactyly. It’s considered benign, however in this individual could have been developmental.

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Notice how he has external tibial torsion (when his knees are pointing forward his feet point to the outside). External tibial torsion generally, because of the orientation of the foot, causes the center of gravity to fall medially thus the need for something to push and stabilize you more laterally, such as toes two through five abducting : )

Dr Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys

#halluxvarus #strangelookingfeet #hallux #thegaitguys #sandalgapdeformity





Barp EA, Temple EW, Hall JL, Smith HL. Treatment of Hallux Varus After Traumatic Adductor Hallucis Tendon Rupture. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2018 Mar - Apr;57(2):418-420.

https://radiopedia.org/articles/sandal-gap-deformity?lang=us

Munir U, Morgan S. Hallux Varus. StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-.
2019 May 6.

Ryan PM, Johnston A, Gun BK. Post-traumatic dynamic hallux varus instability. J Clin Orthop Trauma. 2014 Jun;5(2):94-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jcot.2014.05.005. Epub 2014 Jun 15.

Sixth toe disease...That growth on the outside of your foot… Or on somebody’s foot is coming to see you…

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You know what we’re talking about. That extra growth on the lateral aspect of the foot that happens way too often and many of your clients. A Taylor’s bunion or sometimes referred to as a “bunionette”. 

What is the usual fix?

Usually in a ski boot or hiking boot, they blow out the lateral side of the shoe. This is usually not a good fix because most of these folks have internal tibial torsion and somewhat of a forefoot supinatus/varus.

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The internal tibial torsion places the knee outside the saggital plane and an arch support without a forefoot valgus post will just push it further out, creating a conflict at the knee. The forefoot supinatus and/or varus places them on the outside of the foot as well. Remember, most of these folks are ALREADY on the outside of the foot and the foot wants to migrate laterally...so creating more space just means it migrates farther. Good thought, doesn’t work that way.

IMG_6710.JPG

So what did we do?

  • We created a valgus post for the forefoot (see picture above) tapering from lateral to medial and to help “push“ the distal aspect of the first ray down (because there was motion available that was not being used)

  • We gave him exercises to help descend the first ray like the extensor hallucis brevis exercise, toe waving as well as peroneus longus exercises

  • We gave him plenty of balance and coordination work

    Dr Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys




#6thtoe #internaltibialtorsion #forefootvarus # forefootsupinatus #gaitanalysis #thegaitguys







We’ve told you once and we will tell you again…

Folks with femoral retro torsion often experience lower back pain with twisting movements

This left handed hydrology engineer Presented to the office with an acute onset of lower back pain following “swinging a softball bat”. He comments that he always “hit it out of the park“ and hit “five home runs“ in the last game prior to his backs demise.

note the internal tibial torsion. drop a plumbline from the tibial tuberosity. it should pass through the 2nd met or between the 2nd and 3rd met shafts

note the internal tibial torsion. drop a plumbline from the tibial tuberosity. it should pass through the 2nd met or between the 2nd and 3rd met shafts

note the internal tibial torsion. drop a plumbline from the tibial tuberosity. it should pass through the 2nd met or between the 2nd and 3rd met shafts

note the internal tibial torsion. drop a plumbline from the tibial tuberosity. it should pass through the 2nd met or between the 2nd and 3rd met shafts

He presented antalgic with a pelvic shift to the left side, flexion of the lumbar spine with 0° extension and a complete loss of the lumbar lordosis. He could not extend his lumbar spine past 0° and was able to flex approximately 70. Lateral bending was approximately 20° on each side. Neurological exam negative. Physical exam revealed bilateral femoral retro torsion as seen above. Note above the loss of internal rotation at the hips of both legs, thus he has very limited internal rotation of the hips. Femoral retroversion means that the angle of the neck of the femur (also known as the femoral neck angle) is less than 8°, severely limiting internal rotation of the hip and often leading to CAM lesions.

Stand like you’re in a batters box and swing like you’re left handed. What do you notice? As you come through your swing your left hip externally rotates and your right hip must internally rotate. He has no internal rotation of the right hip and on a good day, the lumbar spine has about 5° of rotation with half of that occurring at the lumbosacral junction. Guess what? The facet joints are going to become compressed!

bisect the calcaneus. the line should fall though the 2nd metatarsal or between the 2nd and 3rd met shafts

bisect the calcaneus. the line should fall though the 2nd metatarsal or between the 2nd and 3rd met shafts

bisect the calcaneus. the line should fall though the 2nd metatarsal or between the 2nd and 3rd met shafts

bisect the calcaneus. the line should fall though the 2nd metatarsal or between the 2nd and 3rd met shafts

Now combine that with bilateral 4 foot adductus (see photos above). His foot is already in supination so it is a poor shock observer.

Go back to your “batters box“. Come through your swing left handed. What do you notice? The left foot goes into a greater amount of pronation in the right foot goes into a greater amount of supination. Do you think this is going to help the amount of internal rotation available to the hip?

When folks present with lower back pain due to twisting injuries, make sure to check for femoral torsions. They’re often present with internal tibial torsion, which is also present in this individual.

Remember a while ago we said “things occur in threes”. That goes for congenital abnormalities as well: in this patient: femoral retro torsion, internal tibial torsion and forefoot adductus.

What do we do? Treat locally to reduce inflammation and take steps to try to improve internal rotation of the hips bilaterally as well as having him externally rotate his right foot when he is in the batteries box to allow him to "create" more internal rotation of the right hip.

Dr Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys

#internalrotation #hipproblem #femoraltorsion #femoralversion #retroversion #retrotorsion #thegaitguys

Holy twisted tibias Batman! What is going here in this R sided knee pain patient?

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In the 1st picture note this patient is in a neutral posture. Note how far externally rotated her right foot is compared to the left. Note that when you drop a plumbline down from the tibial tuberosity it does not pass-through or between the second and third metatarsals. Also note the incident left short leg

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In the next picture both of the patients legs are fully externally rotated. Note the large disparity from right to left. Because of the limited extra rotation of the right hip this patient most likely has femoral retro torsion. This means that the angle of her femoral head is at a greater than 12° angle. We would normally expect approximately 40° of external Rotation. 4 to 6° is requisite for normal gait and supination.

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In the next picture the patients knees are fully internally rotated you can see that she has an excessive amount of internal rotation on the right compare to left, confirming her femoral antetorsion.

Screen Shot 2019-06-10 at 12.28.38 PM.png

When this patient puts her feet straight (last picture), her knees point to the inside causing the patello femoral dysfunction right greater than left. No wonder she has right-sided knee pain!

Because of the degree of external tibial torsion (14 to 21° considered normal), activity modification is imperative. A foot leveling orthotic with a modified UCB, also inverting the orthotic is helpful to bring her foot somewhat more to the midline (the orthotic pushes the knee further outside the sagittal plane and the patient internally rotate the need to compensate, thus giving a better alignment).


a note on tibial torsion. As the fetus matures, The tibia then rotates externally, and most newborns have an average of 0- 4° of internal tibial torsion. At birth, there should be little to no torsion of the tibia; the proximal and distal portions of the bone have little angular difference (see above: top). Postnatally, the tibia should twist outward (externally) a total of 15 degrees until adult values are reached between ages 8 and 10 years of 23° of external tibial torsion (range, 0° to 40°).

Wow, cool stuff, eh? Dr Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys

#tibialtorsion #tibialversion #kneepain #thegaitguys #gaitanalysis

Right-sided knee pain in a cyclist...due to his hip?

This 54-year-old pilot presented to our office with pain on the outside of his right knee while cycling with his wife who is currently training for the triple bypass. The discomfort comes on later in the ride and is largely lateral. He thought it may be due to a seat position so he raised his seat up but then shortly developed lower back discomfort. Lowered the seat back down and presents to the office today. He is currently on a 54 cm Pierello road bike with a straight top tube.

Physical exam revealed him to have moderately limited internal rotation of the right hip which was approximately 5 degrees external rotation; left side had approximately 5 degrees of internal rotation. There was no significant leg length discrepancy or internal tibial torsion. Musculature, save for the long extensors the toes tests 5/5 and strong. Hip extension is 0 degrees bilaterally 5 flexion approximately 120 degrees with tightness mostly in the iliopsoas and some in the rectus femoris. Knee stability tests are unremarkable. Some patellofemoral discomfort with compression on the right. Palpable tightness in the right IT band.

X-rays revealed degenerative changes at the inferior aspect of the right acetabulum with a small spur an osteophyte formation.

His seat height was set so that at bottom dead center with the seat tube he had a 30 degree bend in his knee. Seat fore and aft position placed the knee over pedal spindle behind central axis of the pedal. His pedal stroke, seen on the video, reveals moderate internal rotation and medial displacement of the knee on the right side.

So what is going on?

It’s all about how folks compensate. This gent has very limited internal rotation of the right hip. Due to the nature of cycling, he is REALLY TRYING to get his 1st MTP down to the pedal to generate power. This is not unusual among cyclists, which is why what you think should be happening in gait does not always transfer over to cycling. in doing so, he MUST rotate SOMETHING forward (in this case his pelvis) medially to create the internal rotation needed. From this scenario, you can see how the posturing would increase knee valve and offer a mechanical advantage to the vastus lateralis, causing patello femoral dysfunction and knee pain.

So we did we do?

  • Moved his seat forward so that a line drawn from between the patella and tibial tuberosity fell through the center axis of the pedal

  • Angled his cleat so that he is able to have a greater progression angle moving forward, bringing his knee more into the sagittal plane

  • Began working on the hip to increase internal rotation working on the gluteus minimus, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris as well as hip capsule and ilio/ischio/pubofemoral ligaments

Dr Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys

#kneepain #cycling #hipproblem #femoralretrotorsion #thegaitguys #torsion

Neuroma! Triple Threat....

Can you guess why this patient is developing a neuroma on the left foot, between the 3rd and 4th metatarsals?

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This gal presented to the office with pain in the left foot, in the area she points to as being between the 3rd and 4th metatarsals. It has been coming on over time and has become much worse this spring with hiking long distances, especially in narrower shoes. It is relieved by rest and made worse with activity.

Note the following:

  • She has an anatomical short leg on the left (tibial)

  • internal tibial torsion on the left

  • left forefoot adductus (see the post link below if you need a refresher)

Lets think about this.

The anatomical short leg on the left is causing this foot to remain in relative supination compared the right and causes her to bear weight laterally on the foot.

The internal tibial torsion has a similar effect, decreasing the progression angle and again causing her to bear weight laterally on the foot, compressing the metatarsals together.

We have discussed forefoot adductus before here on the blog. Again, because of the metararsal varus angle, it alters the forces traveling through the foot, pushing the metatarsals together and irritating the nerve root sheath, causing hypertrophy of the epineurium and the beginnings of a neuroma.

In this patients case, these things are additive, causing what I like to a call the “triple threat”.

So, what do we do?

  • give her shoes/sandals with a wider toe box

  • work on foot mobility, especially in descending the 1st ray on the left

  • work on foot intrinsic strength, particularly the long extensors

  • treat the area of inflammation with acupuncture

Dr Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys

#forefootadductus #metatarsusadductus #neuroma #gaitanalysis #thegaitguys #internaltibialtorsion

3 things

Its subtle, but hopefully you see these 3 things in this video.

I just LOVE the slow motion feature on my iPhone. It save me from having to drag the video into Quicktime, slow it down and rerecord it.

This gal has a healing left plantar plate lesion under the 2nd and 3rd mets. She has an anatomical leg length deficiency, short on the left, and bilateral internal tibial torsion, with no significant femoral version. Yes, there are plenty of other salient details, but this sketch will help.

  1. 1st if all, do you see how the pelvis on her left dips WAY more when she lands on the right? There is a small amount of coronal plane shift to the right as well. This often happens in gluteus medius insufficiency on the stance phase leg (right in this case), or quadratus lumborum (QL) deficiency on the swing phase leg (left in this case) or both. Yes, there are other things that can cause this and the list is numerous, but lets stick to these 2 for now. In this case it was her left QL driving the bus.

  2. Watch the left and right forefeet. can you see how she strikes more inverted on the left? this is a common finding, as the body often (but not always) tries to supinate the shorter extremity (dorsiflexion, eversion and adduction, remember?) in an attempt to “lengthen” it. Yes, there is usually anterior pelvic tilt accompanying it on the side, because I knew you were going to ask : )

  3. Look how her knees are OUTSIDE the saggital plane and remain there in her running stride. This is commonly seen in folks with internal tibial torsion and is one of the reasons that in our opinion, these folks should not be put medially posted, torsionally rigid, motion control shoes as this usually drive the knees FURTHER outside the saggital plane and can macerate the meniscus.

Yep, lots more we could talk about on this video, but in my opinion, 3 is a good number.

Dr Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys

#thegaitguys #gaitanalysis #footpain #gaitproblem #internaltibialtorsion #quadratuslumborum #footstrike

https://vimeo.com/329212767

Things seem to come in 3's...

Things tend to occur in threes. This includes congenital abnormalities. Take a look this gentleman who came in to see us with lower back pain.

Highlights with pictures below:

  • bilateral femoral retrotorsion

  • bilateral internal tibial torsion

  • forefoot (metatarsus) adductus

So why LBP? Our theory is the lack of internal rotation of the lower extremities forces that motion to occur somewhere; the next mobile area just north is the lumbar spine, where there is limited rotation available, usually about 5 degrees.

Dr Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys.

#tibialtorsion #femoraltorsion #femoralretrotorsion #lowbackpain #thegaitguys #gaitproblem

this is his left hip in full internal rotation. note that he does go past zero.

this is his left hip in full internal rotation. note that he does go past zero.

full internal rotation of the right hip; note he does not go past zero

full internal rotation of the right hip; note he does not go past zero

note the internal tibial torsion. a line dropped from the tibial tuberosity should go through the 2nd metatarsal or between the 2nd and 3rd.

note the internal tibial torsion. a line dropped from the tibial tuberosity should go through the 2nd metatarsal or between the 2nd and 3rd.

ditto for the keft

ditto for the keft

a line bisecting the calcaneus should pass between the 2nd and 3rd metatarsal shafts. If talar tosion was present, the rearfoot would appear more adducted

a line bisecting the calcaneus should pass between the 2nd and 3rd metatarsal shafts. If talar tosion was present, the rearfoot would appear more adducted

less adductus but still present

less adductus but still present

look at that long flexor response in compensation. What can you say about the quadratus plantae? NO bueno…

look at that long flexor response in compensation. What can you say about the quadratus plantae? NO bueno…

Ditto!

Ditto!

Low Back Pain? Check for Femoral Retrotorsion on the Same Side

note the right sided leg length discrepancy

note the right sided leg length discrepancy

right tibia is anatomically shorter

right tibia is anatomically shorter

more internal rotation available on the left side at the hip. Note the internal tibial torsion as well

more internal rotation available on the left side at the hip. Note the internal tibial torsion as well

very little internal rotation available at the right hip

very little internal rotation available at the right hip

This right handed concrete worker presented to our office with right-sided lower back pain. He was lifting a bag of concrete moving from left to right which she estimates weighing between 60 and 80 pounds. He did this repetitively throughout the day and subsequently developed right sided lower back pain. The pain is in the suprailiac region and is described as dull, achey. Is exacerbated by right rotation and right lateral bending.

His exam found him to have a right sided anatomical leg length discrepancy, tibial left (see above) and femoral retro torsion on the right with no internal rotation of the hip past 0 degrees (see picture of full internal rotation of the right hip and cmpare it with the left); left side had approximately 10 degrees internal rotation. He also has bilateral internal tibial torsion, R > L. Palpation findings revealed tightness in the lumbar multifidus and quadratus lumborum with a loss of lateral bending to the right at L2 through L4 and a loss of flexion about the right sacroiliac joint. Lower extremity reflexes were 2+ with bilateral symmetry; sensation to vibration was intact at the distal phalanges; motor strength was strong and graded as 5/5.

Think about the implications of his right-sided leg length discrepancy first. This places his foot and a relative supinated posture compared to the left. Remember that supination is plantar flexion, inversion and adduction.

His femoral retro torsion on the right limits his internal rotation at the hip. When his foot planted with a diminished progression angle secondary to the internal tibial torsion, and he has to rotate from left to right, very little, if any motion, can occur at the right hip and therefore must occur in the lumbar spine. Remember the lumbar spine has very limited range of motion begin with with most of that occurring at the L5-S1 junction, depending upon its anatomy. Now superimpose a long lever load and rotary force. Back pain!

We instructed him on proper lifting technique and also talked about keeping the shoulders and hips in the same plane when lifting or load. If he does need to lift a load and spin unilateral on his right lower extremity, we asked him to externally rotate the right lower extremity. He was treated with manipulation and neuromuscular acupuncture.

If you have somebody with unilateral lower back pain, think about the implications if they have any femoral torsion or version present

Dr. Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys.

#lowbackpain #LBP #femoralretrotorsion #femoral #torsion #gait #gaitanalysis #thegaituys

Motion control Shoes + Internal Tibial Torsion = Knee Pain

Thinking about putting a motion control shoe under that foot to control pronation? You had better make sure you make friends with the knee, as it will often (depending on the compensation) be placed OUTSIDE the SAGGITAL PLANE. Like Dr Allen has said many times before , the knee is basically a hinge joint placed between 2 ball and socket joints, and it is usually the one to start grumbling...

Learn more as Dr Ivo Waerlop of The Gait Guys explains in this brief video

#gait #Gaitanalysis #gaitguys #thegaitguys #kneepain #motioncontrolshoes #internaltibialtorsion

https://vimeo.com/154496722

NO hip internal rotation? Forget the glutes, have you looked at the femur?

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Some developmental versions involve the femur. The degree of version is the angle between an imaginary line drawn through the condyles of the femur and an imaginary line drawn through the head and neck of the femur. This is often referred to as the femoral neck angle or FNA.

Beginning about the 3rd month of embryological development (Lanz and Mayet 1953) and reaches about 40 degrees (with an average of 30-60 degrees) at birth. It then decreases 25-30 degrees by adulthood to 8-20 degrees with males being at the lower and females at the upper end of the range.

The FNA angle, therefore, diminishes about 1.5 degrees a year until about 15 years of age. Femoral neck anteversion angle is typically symmetrical from the left side to the right side.

What causes torsion in the first place? By the sixth month in utero, the lumbar spine and hips of the fetus are fully flexed, so perhaps it is positional. Other sources say it coincides with the degree of osteogenesis. There is a growing consensus that muscular forces are responsible, particularly the iliopsoas  or possibly the medial and lateral hip rotators.

Additional changes can occur after birth, particularly with sitting postures. “W” sitting or “cross legged” sitting have been associated with altering the available range of motion and thus the FNA, with the range increased in the direction the hip was held in; W sitting causing increased internal rotation and antetorsion and cross legged causing external rotation and retro torsion.

There are at least 3 reasons we need to understand torsions and versions, They can alter the progression angle of gait, they usually affect the available ranges of motion of the limb and they can alter the coronal plane orientation of the limb.

1. fermoral torsions often alter the progression angle of gait.  In femoral antetorsion torsion, the knees often face inward, resulting in an intoed gait and a decreased progression angle of the foot. This can be differentiated from internal tibial torsion (ITT) by looking at the tibia and studying the position of the tibial tuberosity with respect to the foot, particularly the 2nd metatarsal. In ITT, the foot points inward while the tibial tuberosity points straight ahead. In an individual with no torsion, the tibial tuberosity lines up with the 2nd metatarsal. If the tibial tuerosity and 2nd met are lined up,  and the knees still point inward, the individual probably has femoral ante torsion. Remember that a decreased progression angle is often associated with a decreased step width whereas an increased angle is often associated with an increased step width. See the person with external tibial torsion in the above picture?

2. Femoral torsions affect available ranges of motion of the limb. We remember that the thigh leg needs to internally rotate the requisite 4-6 degrees from initial contact to midstance (most folks have 40 degrees) If it is already fully internally rotated (as it may be with femoral retro torsion), that range of motion must be created or compensated for elsewhere. This, much like internal tibial torsion, can result in external rotation of the affected lower limb to create the range of motion needed.

Femoral retro torsion results in less internal rotation of the limb, and increased external rotation.

Femoral ante torsion results in less external rotation of the limb, and increased internal rotation.

3. femoral torsions usually do not effect the coronal plane orientation of the lower limb, since the “spin” is in the transverse or horizontal plane.

The take home message here about femoral torsions is that no matter what the cause:

  •  FNA values that exist one to two standard deviations outside the range are considered “torsions”

  • Decreased values (ie, less than 8 degrees) are called “retro torsion” and increased values (greater than 20 degrees) are called “ante torsion”

  • Retro torsion causes a limitation of available internal rotation of the hip and an increase in external rotation

  • Ante torsion causes an increase in available internal rotation  of the hip and decrease in external rotation

  • Femoral ante torsion will be perpetuated by “W” sitting (sitting on knees with the feet outside the thighs, promoting internal rotation of the femur)

  • Femoral antetorsion will be perpetuated by sitting cross legged, which forces the thigh into external rotation.

Dr Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys

#gait, gait analysis, #thegaitguys, #femoraltorsion, #antetorsion, #retrotorsion

So your patents foot points in or out... Have you considered talar torsion in the differential?

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The talus is to the foot, as the lunate is to the hand. It is the only bone that has the entire weight of the body passing through it before being distributed to the foot. It’s motion during pronation should be flexion, adduction and eversion, and in supination: extension,  abduction and inversion.

At birth, the angle between the talar neck and talar dome is 30 degrees adduction. This reduces to 18-20 degrees in the adult (see above). During this reduction of angle, the talar head also everts or “twists” laterally (ie promotes pronation), which helps to correct the supination and adducted position of the forefoot in adults present in infants (Saffarian 2011).

Abnormal talar loading and “untwisting” in development  has been linked to formation of a Rothbart foot type, also known as metatarsus primus elavatus (Rothbart 2003, 2009,2010. 2012). The 1st metatarsal is elevated and inverted with respect to the rest of the foot, with it behaving much like a fore foot varus.

Talar torsion (sometimes called subtalar version) results when there is a 10 degree or greater change in the final position of the talar head. This can cause an adducted position of the forefoot, often mistakenly called “forefoot adductus’, which actually only applies to the metatarsals, and not at all to the talus.

An adducted forefoot provides challenges to gait with many possible compensations. As discussed previously, there are at least 3 reasons we need to understand torsions and versions:

1. They will often alter the progression angle. In talar adduction, there will often be a decreased progression angle of the foot. This causes the individual to toe off in supination.

2. They affect available ranges of motion of the limb. We remember that the lower leg needs to internally rotate the requisite 4-6 degrees from initial contact to midstance, If it is already fully internally rotated, that range of motion must be created elsewhere. This may result in external rotation of the affected lower limb, excessive pronation through the deformity (if possible), or rolling off the lateral aspect of the foot.

3. They often can effect the coronal plane orientation of the lower limb. In talar torsion, the head of the talus often does not “untwist” appropriately resulting in a functional forefoot varus, with excessive forefoot pronation occurring at terminal stance and pre swing.

There you have it in a nutshell. Talar tosion: Present in 8% of the population (Bleck 1982) and coming to your clinic (or maybe it has already been there!

We will be talking about talar torsion, as well as many other torsional deformities of the the lower limb this wednesday evening on online.com: Biomechanics 305. Hope to see you there

Dr Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys

#gait, #gaitanalysis, #thegaitguys, #talartorsion,#talus, #progressionangle, #toein, #toeout



Got a kid that "toes in"?

image source: W Phillips https://somepomed.org/articulos/contents/mobipreview.htm?38/8/39046

image source: W Phillips https://somepomed.org/articulos/contents/mobipreview.htm?38/8/39046

Photo Credit: Illustration based off Jake Pett, B.F.A. and Stuart Pett,  M.D illustration for International Association for Dance Medicine and  Science 2011

Photo Credit: Illustration based off Jake Pett, B.F.A. and Stuart Pett, M.D illustration for International Association for Dance Medicine and Science 2011

image courtesy: T Michaud

image courtesy: T Michaud

Got a kid that "toes in" during gait? Are you seeing this?

  • smaller foot progression angle

  • greater knee adduction

  • more internally rotated and flexed hips

  • greater anterior pelvic tilt

Wondering what could be causing it?

We start life with the hips anteverted (ie, the angle of the neck of the femur with the shaft of the femur is > 12 degrees; in fact at birth it is around 35 degrees) and this angle should decrease as we age to about 8-12 degrees). When we stand, the heads of our femurs point anteriorly; it is just a matter of how much (ante version or ante torsion) or how little (retro version or retro torsion) that is.

The degree of version is the angle between an imaginary line drawn through the condyles of the femur and an imaginary line drawn through the head and neck of the femur. This is often referred to as the femoral neck angle or FNA.

Beginning about the 3rd month of embryological development (Lanz and Mayet 1953) and reaches about 40 degrees (with an average of 30-60 degrees) at birth. It then decreases 25-30 degrees by adulthood to 8-20 degrees with males being at the lower and females at the upper end of the range.

The angle of the femur neck to its shaft diminishes about 1.5 degrees a year until about 15 years of age. Femoral neck anteversion angle is typically symmetrical from the left side to the right side.

What causes torsion in the first place? By the sixth month in utero, the lumbar spine and hips of the fetus are fully flexed, so perhaps it is positional. Other sources say it coincides with the degree of osteogenesis. There is a growing consensus that muscular forces are responsible, particularly the iliopsoas or possibly the medial and lateral hip rotators.

Additional changes can occur after birth, particularly with sitting postures. “W” sitting or “cross legged” sitting have been associated with altering the available range of motion and thus the FNA, with the range increased in the direction the hip was held in; W sitting causing increased internal rotation and antetorsion and cross legged causing external rotation and retro torsion.

There are at least 3 reasons we need to understand torsions and versions, They can alter the progression angle of gait, they usually affect the available ranges of motion of the limb and they can alter the coronal plane orientation of the limb.

1. fermoral torsions often alter the progression angle of gait. In femoral antetorsion torsion, the knees often face inward, resulting in an intoed gait and a decreased progression angle of the foot. This can be differentiated from internal tibial torsion (ITT) by looking at the tibia and studying the position of the tibial tuberosity with respect to the foot, particularly the 2nd metatarsal. In ITT, the foot points inward while the tibial tuberosity points straight ahead. In an individual with no torsion, the tibial tuberosity lines up with the 2nd metatarsal. If the tibial tuerosity and 2nd met are lined up, and the knees still point inward, the individual probably has femoral ante torsion. Remember that a decreased progression angle is often associated with a decreased step width whereas an increased angle is often associated with an increased step width. 

2. Femoral torsions affect available ranges of motion of the limb. We remember that the thigh leg needs to internally rotate the requisite 4-6 degrees from initial contact to midstance (most folks have 40 degrees) If it is already fully internally rotated (as it may be with femoral retro torsion), that range of motion must be created or compensated for elsewhere. This, much like internal tibial torsion, can result in external rotation of the affected lower limb to create the range of motion needed.

Femoral retro torsion results in less internal rotation of the limb, and increased external rotation.

Femoral ante torsion results in less external rotation of the limb, and increased internal rotation.

3. femoral torsions usually do not effect the coronal plane orientation of the lower limb, since the “spin” is in the transverse or horizontal plane.

 

The take home message here about femoral torsions is that no matter what the cause:

  • the angle of the femur neck to shaft values that exist one to two standard deviations outside the range are considered “torsions”

  • Decreased values (ie, less than 8 degrees) are called “retro torsion” and increased values (greater than 20 degrees) are called “ante torsion”

  • Retro torsion causes a limitation of available internal rotation of the hip and an increase in external rotation

  • Ante torsion causes an increase in available internal rotation of the hip and decrease in external rotation

  • Femoral ante torsion will be perpetuated by “W” sitting (sitting on knees with the feet outside the thighs, promoting internal rotation of the femur)

  • Femoral antetorsion will be perpetuated by sitting cross legged, which forces the thigh into external rotation.

 

Great paper here

link to full text: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jor.22746/abstract;jsessionid=AC848D963DCA526402D71260BDFC91F6.f04t04

Dr Ivo, one of the Gait Guys

#gait,#gaitanalysis,#femoralneckangle, #femoraltorsion, #antetorsion, #retrotorsion, #toein

 

Tibial torsion and the effect on progression angle

more tibial torsion = a change in progression angle.

How does tibial torsion impact the development of the foot progression angle?

Stratifying the data by Foot Progression Angle (FPA) revealed there were significant differences in tibial torsion among the groups and provided evidence that tibial torsion influences the direction and magnitude of the FPA. Offsetting torsions between the tibia and femur were more common in people with higher and lower FPA and had clearer patterns where the tibia tended to follow the direction of the FPA.

So, got that? The foot progression angle follows the tibial torsion...

Why do we care?

the greater the “kickstand” angle to the foot, the more we progress through the mid foot (rather than from the lateral aspect of the heel, up the lateral column, across the transverse metatarsal arch and through the 1st ray). This causes more mid foot pronation and more medial knee fall, resulting in gait inefficiency and often times in our experiences, increased knee pain.

Gait Posture. 2016 Sep;49:426-30. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2016.08.004. Epub 2016 Aug 3.
The rotational profile: A study of lower limb axial torsion, hip rotation, and the foot progression angle in healthy adults.
Hudson D1.