The extensor hallucis brevis revisited…or……axes of rotation
In a previous post, we described the attachments and importance of this little, but important muscle. Today we will explore that further.(4 images above, toggle through them)
We recall that the EHB is not only a dorsiflexor of the proximal hallux, but also a descender of the head of the 1st metatarsal . Why is this so important?
The central axis of a joint (sometimes called the instantaneous axis of motion) is the center of movement of that articulation. It is the location where the motion will occur around, much like the center of a wheel, where the axle attaches. In an articulation, it usually involves one bone moving around another. Lets look at an example with a door hinge.
A hinge is similar to a joint, in that it has parts with is joining together (the door and the jamb), with a “joint” in between, The axis of rotation of the hinge is at the pivot rod. When the door, hinge and jamb are all aligned, it functions smoothly. Now imagine that the hinge was attached to the jamb 1/4” off center. What would happen? The hinge would bind and the door would not operate smoothly.
Now let’s think about the 1st metatarsal phalangeal joint. It exists between the head of the 1st metatarsal and the proximal part of the proximal part of the proximal phalanyx. Normally, because the head of the 1st metatarsal is larger than the heads of the lesser ones, the center of the joint is higher (actually,almost 2X as high; 8mm as opposed to 15mm). We also remember that the 1st metatarsal is usually shorter then the 2nd, meaning during a gait cycle, it bears the brunt of the weight and hits the ground earlier than the head of the 2nd.
The head of the 1st metatarsal should slide (or should we say glide?) posteriorly on the sesamoids during dorsiflexion of the hallux at pre swing (toe off). It is able to do this because of the descent of the head of the 1st metatarsal, which causes a dorsal posterior shift of the axis of rotation of the joint. We remember that the head of the 1st descends through the conjoined efforts of supination and the coordinated efforts of the peroneus longus, extensor hallucis brevis, extensor hallucis longus, dorsal and plantar interossei and flexor hallucis brevis (which nicely moves the sesamoids and keeps the process gong smoothly).
Suffice it to say, if things go awry, the axis does not shift, the sesamoids do not move, and the phalanyx crashes into the 1st metatarsal, causing pain and if it continues, a nice spur you can write home about.
Ivo and Shawn….Still Bald…Still good looking…still promoting foot literacy everywhere