Arm swing, let the CNS drive the show

For those arm swing/pulsers/ COM and head over foot folks consider some more research below.
Let the CNS drive the show, it is what it is there for . . . The leg motor patterns are dominant, the arms are passive and "shape" and influence the leg swing as a balance and ballast effect. As we discuss in an upcoming podcast, to cross the arms in a pumping motion across the midline of the body means one has to have compromised scapular mechanics (mostly protraction) to afford that much humeral adduction. This means we are forcing thoracic rotation as well. This means we are reversing what we know is more true, that "arm motion is driven passively by rotation of the thorax (Pontzer et al., 2009), an idea which is supported by shoulder muscle EMG data" (and not thoracic rotation by arm swing). Why would we try to create more unnatural axial spin through the spine when we are actually trying to move forward in the sagittal plane? Why would we try to force more rotation through the spine when the function of the thoracopelvic canister (ie. the core) is to stabilize rotational /angluar momentum? Hmmmm, things to ponder.

"Previous modelling studies have clearly shown that motion of the arms effectively counterbalances the angular momentum of the lower extremities during running (Hamner & Delp, 2013; Hamner et al., 2010). It has further been suggested that arm motion is driven passively by rotation of the thorax (Pontzer et al., 2009), an idea which is supported by shoulder muscle EMG data, consistent with the shoulders as spring-like linkages (Ballesteros, Buchthal, & Rosenfalck, 1965). Our data are con- sistent with this idea, showing motion of the thorax to be in the opposite direction to that of the swinging leg. Pontzer et al. (2009) also suggested that motion of the thorax is driven passively by motion of the pelvis. However, our data shows that the thorax reaches its peak angular velocity earlier than the pelvis, indicating that thorax motion is not completely passively driven by pelvic movements."

-S.J. Preece et al. / Human Movement Science 45 (2016) 110–118

Pronation anyone? Coupling? Walking Speed? How do they relate?

We have talked many times here on TGG about pronation, supination, overpronation, asymmetrical pronation, and more.

When most people think of pronation, they think of midfoot pronation, or pronation about the subtalar or transverse tarsal joints. Pronation can actually occur about any articulation or bone, but with respect to the foot, we like to think of rearfoot (ie. talo-calcaneal), midfoot (talo-navicular) and forefoot (transverse tarsal). The question is why does this matter?

Pronation, with respect to the foot, is defined as a combination of eversion, abduction and dorsiflexion (see picture attached) which results in flattening of the planter vault encompassing the medial and lateral longitudinal arches. In a normal gait cycle, this begins at initial contact (heel strike) and terminates at midstance, lasting no more than 25% of the gait cycle.

In a perfect biomechanical world, shortly following initial contact with the ground, the calcaneus should evert 4-8 degrees, largely because the body of the calcaneus is lateral to the longitudinal axis of the tibia. This results in plantar flexion, adduction and eversion of the talus on the calcaneus, as it slides anteriorly. At this point, there should be dorsiflexion of the transverse tarsal (calcaneo-cuboid and talo-navicular joints). Due to the tight fit of the ankle mortise and its unique shape, the tibial rotates internally (medially). This translates up the kinetic chain and causes internal rotation of the femur, which causes subsequent nutation of the pelvis and extension of the lumbar spine. This should occur in the lower kinetic chain through the 1st half of stance phase. The sequence should reverse after the midpoint of midstance, causing supination and creating a rigid lever for forward propulsion.

Pronation, along with knee and hip flexion, allow for shock absorption during throughout the 1st half of stance phase. Pronation allows for the calcaneo-cuboid and talo-navicular joint axes to be parallel making the foot into a mobile adaptor so it can contour to irregular surfaces, like our hunter gatherer forefathers used to walk on before we paved the planet. Problems arise when the foot either under pronates (7 degrees valgus results in internal tibial rotation), resulting in poor shock absorption or over pronates (> 8 degrees or remains in pronation for greater than 50% of stance phase).

This paper talks about how foot and ankle pathologies have effects on other articulations in the foot. They looked at stance phase of gait in 14 people without pathology at 3 different walking speeds. they found:

coupling relationships between rear foot inversion and hallux plantar flexion and rear foot eversion with hallux dorsiflexion.... When the rear foot everts (as it does as discussed above) during pronation from initial contact to mid stance , the hallux should be extending AND when the rear foot everts, as it should from mid stance to terminal stance/pre swing, the hallux should be plantar flexing to get the 1st ray down to the ground

medial (internal) rotation of there leg was accompanied by mid foot collapse (read pronation) and lateral (external) rotation with mid foot elevation (read supination).... Because of the shape of the talar dome and shape of the talo calcaneal facet joints, the talus plantar flexes, everts and adducts from initial contact to mid stance, and dorsiflexes, inverts and adducts from mid stance to terminal stance/ pre swing

walking speed significantly influenced these coupling relationships....meaning that the faster we go, the faster these things must happen and the greater degree that the surrounding musculature and associated cortical control mechanisms must act

So, when these relationships are compromised, problems (or more often, compensations) ensue. Think about these relationships and the kinetics and kinematics the next time you are studying someones gait.

Dr Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys

Dubbeldam R1, Nester C, Nene AV, Hermens HJ, Buurke JH. Kinematic coupling relationships exist between non-adjacent segments of the foot and ankle of healthy subjects.Kinematic coupling relationships exist between non-adjacent segments of the foot and ankle of healthy subjects.Gait Posture. 2013 Feb;37(2):159-64. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.06.033. Epub 2012 Aug 27

cool video on our blog to go with this post:

https://www.thegaitguys.com/thedailyblog/2018/8/7/what-do-you-know-about-pronation-and-supination

#gaitanalysis #thegaitguys #pronation #couplingrelationshipsandgait #pronation

Podcast 143: Future of movement, Running Cadence. Plus: gait rehab, eye control, plantar fascia talk

Topics:


Links to find the podcast:

Look for us on iTunes, Google Play, Podbean, PlayerFM and more.
Just Google "the gait guys podcast".

Our Websites:

www.thegaitguys.com
Find Exclusive content at: https://www.patreon.com/thegaitguys
doctorallen.co
summitchiroandrehab.com
shawnallen.net

Our website is all you need to remember. Everything you want, need and wish for is right there on the site.
Interested in our stuff ? Want to buy some of our lectures or our National Shoe Fit program? Click here (thegaitguys.com or thegaitguys.tumblr.com) and you will come to our websites. In the tabs, you will find tabs for STORE, SEMINARS, BOOK etc. We also lecture every 3rd Wednesday of the month on onlineCE.com. We have an extensive catalogued library of our courses there, you can take them any time for a nominal fee (~$20).

Our podcast is on iTunes and just about every other podcast harbor site, just google "the gait guys podcast", you will find us.

Where to find us, the podcast Links:


iTunes page:
https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-gait-guys-podcast/id559864138?mt=2

Google Play:
https://play.google.com/music/m/Icdfyphojzy3drj2tsxaxuadiue?t=The_Gait_Guys_Podcast

Direct download URL: http://traffic.libsyn.com/thegaitguys/pod_143_146old_-_11919_11.11_AM.mp3

Permalink URL: http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-143-future-of-movement-running-cadence-and-more

Libsyn Directory URL: http://directory.libsyn.com/episode/index/id/8316341

Show notes:

The future of human movement control ?
https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2019-01-01/zuckerberg-funds-wireless-mind-control-using-game-changing-brain-implants

Really interesting study: in-race cadence data from world 100K champs. Fatigue matters less than expected;
https://www.outsideonline.com/2377976/stop-overthinking-your-running-cadence?utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter&utm_campaign=onsiteshare

A new study shows a majority (82%) of adolescent patients presenting with FAI syndrome can be managed nonoperatively, with significant improvements in outcome scores at a mean follow-up of two years: ow.ly/GXtC30n49nc pic.twitter.com/dyr4f6pEOU

Gait Rehab
https://academic.oup.com/ptj/article/88/12/1460/2742171
" Rehabilitation of gait in PSP should also include oculomotor training because the ability to control eye movements is directly related to the control of gait and safe ambulation. Vision plays a critical role in the control of locomotion because it provides input for anticipatory reactions of the body in response to constraints of the environment. Anticipatory saccades occur normally in situations that involve changing the direction of walking17 or avoiding obstacles.18 When downward saccades are not frequently generated during obstacle avoidance tasks, there is an increase in the risk for falling. Di Fabio et al19 reported that elderly people at a high risk for falling generated fewer saccades than their low-risk counterparts during activities involving stepping over obstacles. In addition, foot clearance trajectories were asymmetric in the high-risk group, with the lag foot trajectory being significantly lower than the lead foot trajectory. Similar behavior has been observed in patients with PSP during stair-climbing activities. Di Fabio et al20 recently reported that patients with severe oculomotor limitations had a lower lag foot trajectory than those with mild oculomotor limitations. "

Eye movements:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4932064/
" The content of the eye movement program was as follows: First, a picture card was shown to the patient, and then mixed with 20 other cards and spread face up on the desk. The patient was instructed to find that one card. This task was repeated approximately 20 times. Second, the therapist moved a baton slowly while drawing curves and the patient was instructed to keep his or her gaze fixed on the tip of the baton. In this task, the distance between the baton and the patient was maintained at approximately 1 m and the task was performed for approximately five minutes. Third, the patient was instructed to shake his or her head laterally as quickly as possible and a letter card with letters written upside down was presented to the patient to read. This task was repeated approximately 10 times. Fourth, the therapist moved a baton slowly from a point approximately 5 cm away from the patient to a point approximately 50 cm away and the patient was instructed to keep his or her eyes on the baton. This task was performed for approximately five minutes. The experimental group underwent eye movement training while the control group underwent gait training for 20 minutes per session, five times per week for six months in total."

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3259492/

Plantar fascia loads higher when forefoot striking . . . .
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021929018308959
Foot arch deformation and plantar fascia loading during running with rearfoot strike and forefoot strike: A dynamic finite element analysis
Tony Lin-WeiChen et al


High pronation was associated with 20-fold higher odds of injury than neutral foot posture
Association between the Foot Posture Index and running related injuries: A case-control study
AitorPérez-Morcillo et al
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0268003318304303

movement, gait, thegaitguys, running, cadence, step length, stride length, eye movements, rehab, gait analysis, gait problems, pronation, plantar fascia,

Podcast 126: Running, Athletes & MTSS (Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome)

Key tag words:
running, gait, injuries, achilles tendon, CRIPSR, swearing, limbic system, MTSS, stress fractures, tibial stress fracture, medial tibial stress syndrome, shoe drop, treadmill running, treadmills, barefoot, cortisone, cartilage loss, runners, marathons

Plus a plethora of other great running geeky stuff, clinical pearls, swearing, why not to use cortisone injections and more !

Podcast location links:

http://traffic.libsyn.com/thegaitguys/pod_126fmp3.mp3

http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-126-running-athletes-mtss-medial-tibial-stress-syndrome

http://directory.libsyn.com/episode/index/id/5563258

Our Websites:
www.thegaitguys.com

summitchiroandrehab.com   doctorallen.co     shawnallen.net



Our website is all you need to remember. Everything you want, need and wish for is right there on the site.
Interested in our stuff ? Want to buy some of our lectures or our National Shoe Fit program? Click here (thegaitguys.com or thegaitguys.tumblr.com) and you will come to our websites. In the tabs, you will find tabs for STORE, SEMINARS, BOOK etc. We also lecture every 3rd Wednesday of the month on onlineCE.com. We have an extensive catalogued library of our courses there, you can take them any time for a nominal fee (~$20).
 
Our podcast is on iTunes, Soundcloud, and just about every other podcast harbor site, just google "the gait guys podcast", you will find us.
 
Show Notes:

Implantable computer chips will control your body’s movement
http://nypost.com/2017/05/16/implantable-computer-chips-will-control-your-bodys-movement/?utm_campaign=partnerfeed&utm_medium=syndicated&utm_source=flipboard

ANU researchers grow brain cells on a chip that can be used for neural implants
http://tech.firstpost.com/news-analysis/anu-researchers-grow-brain-cells-on-a-chip-that-can-be-used-for-neural-implants-376218.html

How Scientists Think CRISPR Will Change Medicine
http://time.com/4764488/crispr-genomic-technology/

'Exercise-in-a-pill' steps closer with new study
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/317263.php

Swearing can boost muscle strength and stamina, scientists claim
http://www.mirror.co.uk/lifestyle/health/swearing-can-boost-muscle-strength-10358340

MTTS: medial tibial stress syndrome
https://www.thegaitguys.com/thedailyblog/2017/5/2/medial-tibial-stress-syndrome-mtss-and-the-long-flexor-of-the-big-toe

Corticosteriod coffin
Effect of Intra-articular Triamcinolone vs Saline on Knee Cartilage Volume and Pain in Patients With Knee OsteoarthritisA Randomized Clinical Trial

Timothy E. McAlindon, DM, MPH1; Michael P. LaValley, PhD2; William F. Harvey, MD1; et al

https://twitter.com/JAMA_current/status/864631934483345408

http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2626573?utm_source=TWITTER&utm_medium=social_jn&utm_term=901304561&utm_content=content_engagement|article_engagement&utm_campaign=article_alert&linkId=37665463

Achilles Tendon Load is Progressively Increased with Reductions in Walking Speed.
http://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Abstract/publishahead/Achilles_Tendon_Load_is_Progressively_Increased.97204.aspx

Shoe drop has opposite influence on running pattern when running overground or on a treadmill.   Nicolas Chambon et al
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00421-014-3072-x

Forefoot strike running: Do you have enough calf muscle endurance to do it without a cost ?

Below you will find an article on footwear and running. Rice et al concluded that 

“ When running in a standard shoe, peak resultant and component instantaneous loadrates were similar between footstrike patterns. However, loadrates were lower when running in minimal shoes with a FFS (forefoot strike), compared with running in standard shoes with either foot strike. Therefore, it appears that footwear alters the loadrates during running, even with similar foot strike patterns.

They concluded that footwear alters the load rates during running. No brain surgery here. But that is not the point I want to discuss today. Foot strike matters. Shoes matter. And pairing the foot type and your strike patterns of mental choice, or out of natural choice, is critical. For example, you are not likely (hopefully) to choose a HOKA shoe if you are a forefoot striker. The problem is, novice runners are not likely to have a clue about this, especially if they are fashonistas about their reasoning behind shoe purchases. Most serious runners do not care about the look/color of the shoe. This is serious business to them and they know it is just a 2-3 months in the shoe, depending on their mileage. But, pairing the foot type, foot strike pattern and shoe anatomy is a bit of a science and an art. I will just mention our National Shoe Fit Certification program here if you want to get deeper into that science and art. (Beware, this is not a course for the feint of heart.)

However, I just wanted to approach a theoretical topic today, playing off of the “Forefoot strike” methodology mentioned in the article today.  I see this often in my practice, I know Ivo does as well. The issue can be one of insufficient endurance and top end strength (top end ankle plantar flexion) of the posterior mechanism, the gastrocsoleus-achilles complex. If your calf complex starts to fatigue and you are forefoot striker, the heel will begin to drop, and sometimes abruptly right after forefoot load. The posterior compartment is a great spring loading mechanism and can be used effectively in many runners, the question is, if you fatigue your’s beyond what is safe and effective are you going to pay a price ? This heel drop can put a sudden unexpected and possibly excessive load into the posterior compartment and achilles. This act will move you into more relative dorsiflexion, this will also likely start abrupt loading the calf-achilles eccentrically. IF you have not trained this compartment for eccentric loads, your achilles may begin to call you out angrily. Can you control the heel decent sufficiently to use the stored energy efficiently and effectively? Or will you be a casualty?  This drop if uncontrolled or excessive may also start to cause some heel counter slippage at the back of the shoe, friction is never a good thing between skin and shoe. This may cause some insertional tendonitis or achilles proper hypertrophy or adaptive thickening. This may cause some knee extension when the knee should not be extending. This may cause some pelvis drop, a lateral foot weight bear shift and supination tendencies, some patellofemoral compression, anterior meniscofemoral compression/impingement, altered arm swing etc.  You catch my drift. Simply put, an endurance challenged posterior compartment, one that may not express its problem until the latter miles, is something to be aware of. 

Imagine being a forefoot striker and 6 miles into a run your calf starts to fatigue. That forefoot strike now becomes a potential liability. We like, when possible, a mid foot strike. This avoids heel strike, avoids the problems above, and is still a highly effective running strike pattern. Think about this, if you are a forefoot striker and yet you still feel your heel touch down each step after the forefoot load, you may be experiencing some of the things I mentioned above on a low level. And, you momentarily moved backwards when you are trying to run forwards. Why not just make a subtle change towards mid foot strike, when that heel touches down after your forefoot strike, you are essentially there anyways. Think about it.

Shawn Allen, one of The Gait Guys

Footwear Matters: Influence of Footwear and Foot Strike on Loadrates During Running. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise:
Rice, Hannah M.; Jamison, Steve T.; Davis, Irene S.

http://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Abstract/publishahead/Footwear_Matters___Influence_of_Footwear_and_Foot.97456.aspx

A marathon a day, for over 120 days…..on one leg, battling cancer.

So you think you are tough ? This guy was tough. A marathon a day for over 120 days…..on one leg, battling cancer. 

Rest in Peace Terry. You are not forgotten. You made a mark on my life, thank you for that. Watching you skip on the good leg, giving your prosthetic enough time to swing through mesmerized me, the biomechanics of it all. If i look back, this was the first time I payed attention with great detail to someone’s gait. I was in awe, you moved me, your mission moved me, your heart and spirit moved me. Your life made a difference in mine, so I may help others.Dr. Allen
Today, June 28th, every year here on The Gait Guys, I remember Terry Fox. Every year I post a reminder of perhaps one of the toughest dudes who ever lived. Today , this day, 1981 Terry Fox died. I grew up in Canada. I was barely a teenager when Terry began his plight, The Marathon of Hope. 

His mission, 26 miles a day, every day, until he had crossed the expanse of Canada to raise awareness for cancer. He made it an amazing 120+ days in a row, 3339 miles, one one leg, before his cancer returned. The whole country stood cheering watching him do something no mortal man would attempt, let along with one leg, and cancer. Today we pay a tribute to this true rockstar.
Let this video move you, just in case you think you are having a rough day.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xjgTlCTluPA

Global body compensations in ACL deficient knees.

ALERT: Ok, this is big.
It is a huge comment on what the brain and reflexive patterns impart on posture and gait when perceived functional instability is present.
This study aimed to investigate the gait modification strategies of trunk over right stance phase in patients with right anterior cruciate ligament deficiency.
* Here is what you need to ABSOLUTLY keep in mind when you read it. The 3D capture it telling you what they are DOING to strategize, not what is WRONG or what needs CORRECTING (our mantra it seems, sorry to keep beating this concept to death). This again hits home what I have been preaching for quite some time, that arm swing (and you can translate that to trunk movements, thorax, head posture, breathing etc) should not be coached or corrected unless you are absolutely sure there are clean symmetrical lower limb biomechanics (yes, you can easily and correctly argue that you can concurrently work on all parts). IF there is something going awry in a lower limb, compensations will occur above, they have to occur. So be absolutely sure you are not making therapeutic interventions above without making therapeutic corrections below. If you are working on a shoulder/upper quarter problem and are not looking for drivers in the lower limbs or in gait, well … . . good luck making lasting effects. Other than breathing, it can be argued well that gait locomotion is our 2nd most engaged motor pattern that we have driven to subconscious levels , and compensations are abound (but not without a cost), so we can dual++ task.
If you want to dive deeper into this, search our blog and look for my articles on Anti-phasic gait. This is essentially what this study was looking at, and confirming, that there is a distortion in the NORMAL opposite phase movements (anti-phasic) of the “shoulder girdle” and “pelvic girdle” when something goes wrong in a lower limb.
- Dr. Allen

Findings from Shi et al when there was a chronic right ACL deficiency:
-trunk rotation with right shoulder trailing over the right stance phase was lower in all five motion patterns
- trunk posterior lean was higher from descending stairs to walking when the knee sagittal plane moment ended
- trunk lateral flexion to the left was higher when ascending stairs at the start of right knee coronal plane moment when descending stairs at the maximal knee coronal plane moment and when descending stairs at the end of the knee coronal plane moment
- trunk rotation with right shoulder forward was higher at the minimal knee transverse plane moment and when the knee transverse plane moment ended
- during walking, trunk rotation with right shoulder trailing was lower at other knee moments during other walking patterns

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27131179

Feature: Arterial disease and cycling - VeloNews.com

“That offseason, his symptoms worsened. Before, it might have taken 20 minutes of riding at 400 watts to feel the sensation. Now, if he rode for five minutes at 350, he’d be riding with one good leg and one numb, powerless appendage.”

Iliac artery endofibrosis is a circulatory condition affecting the legs and is sending more and more cyclists under the knife.
If you are a bike geek like i am (been watching the Tour de France since i was 15) you may take interest in this. If you are a avid bike rider or triathlete you may take interest in this.
But do not stop at the bike when you have symptoms in front of you that sound vascular. If your leg is doing numb on a long walk or run, dead or heavy during exertion, something is going on that needs evaluated. Get evaluated.

Obesity and Base of Support

Recently we have been speaking and writing about “base of support” and how a narrow base of support will render a small comfort and control zone of balance in single leg tasking (walking, running, sports etc). We do not notice these things if we are standing on both feet or when walking or running per se, but all one needs to do is test a 30 second single leg stance to see how crappy one’s single limb base of support actually is. Most people will drift the pelvis laterally to get the single foot under the center of the body mass. This is a false support, it is a demonstration of weak support, unless you like to walk on a line/cross over gait. We should not have our knees rubbing together, scuffing our ankles or shoes together. If you do, you have a narrow base of support, have engrained a lazy style of locomotion, and you will wish and attempt to put the center of your body mass over the foot at all times. This is good if you are walking on ice, but that is about it. This is an epidemic, hence the prevalence of cross over gait out in the world. Increasing balance ability will help to increase base of support and hence help with reducing cross over gait (narrow step width gait and running) tendencies. Obesity seems to make this worse. Obesity in our world is wrecking our people, especially our kids.

“Alterations were detected in the intermittent postural control in obese children. According to the results obtained, active anticipatory control produces higher center of pressure displacement responses in obese children and the periods during which balance is maintained by passive control and reflex mechanisms are of shorter duration.”
“Differences in intermittent postural control between normal-weight and obese children ” Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Xavier García-Massó

http://www.gaitposture.com/article/S0966-6362(16)30091-1/abstract?platform=hootsuite

Kinetic chain transfer.

Anyone would be silly to disagree with this.
We go into some deeper reasoning back in this older blog post (https://tmblr.co/ZrRYjxTJ6zw9) looking at arm swing and leg swing and pairing of pelvis and shoulder posturing and how clean pelvis function parlays into upper body function in softball pitching.

“Proper utilization of the kinetic chain allows for efficient kinetic energy transfer from the proximal segments to the distal segments. Dysfunction at a proximal segment may lead to altered energy transfer and dysfunction at more distal segments,”

Lower body conditioning may cut upper body injury risk in softball. -Hank Black

http://lermagazine.com/special-section/pediatric-clinical-news/lower-body-conditioning-may-cut-upper-body-injury-risk-in-softball

Gait and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Gait and autism spectrum disorder (ASD):
“ … overall findings of the studies conducted in the area are inconclusive … however, some results suggest an emerging pattern. The current perspective on gait patterns in children with ASD is that there are a number of deviations present in terms of temporospatial, kinematic, and kinetic parameters and that gait, along with other movement pattern changes, may be used to allow for earlier diagnosis of ASD. There is, however, some consensus regarding the involvement of the cerebellum and basal ganglia in children with ASD and the relationship with observed motor deficits. ” - Kindregan et al

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aurt/2015/741480/

Gait and the lower visual field.

Gait and the eyes. We forget about the eyes. If you have vision issues, your gait may change.
Gaze during adaptive gait involving obstacle crossing is typically directed two or more steps ahead where as visual information of the “in the moment” swinging lower-limb and its relative position during the task is available in the lower visual field. This study determined exactly when visual information is utilised to control/update lead-limb swing trajectory during obstacle negotiation.
In this study, when the lower visual field was blocked out the foot-placement distance and toe-clearance became significantly increased, suggesting the brain overcorrecting for safety. A logical assumption. “These findings suggest that lower visual field input is typically used in an online manner to control/update final foot-placement, and that without such control, uncertainty regarding foot placement causes toe-clearance to be increased.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22424759

Podcast 103: Effects of Cold on Physiology/Athletes

Using Cold adaptation to your advantage, Walking Rehab “Carries”, Walking and Proprioception.

Show Sponsors:
newbalancechicago.com
Softscience.com

Other Gait Guys stuff

A. Podcast links:

direct download URL: http://traffic.libsyn.com/thegaitguys/pod_103f.mp3

permalink URL: http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-103-effects-of-cold-on-physiologyathletes

B. iTunes link:
https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-gait-guys-podcast/id559864138


C. Gait Guys online /download store (National Shoe Fit Certification & more !)
http://store.payloadz.com/results/results.aspx?m=80204

D. other web based Gait Guys lectures:
Monthly lectures at : www.onlinece.com type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen, ”Biomechanics”

-Our Book: Pedographs and Gait Analysis and Clinical Case Studies
Electronic copies available here:

-Amazon/Kindle:
http://www.amazon.com/Pedographs-Gait-Analysis-Clinical-Studies-ebook/dp/B00AC18M3E

-Barnes and Noble / Nook Reader:
http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/pedographs-and-gait-analysis-ivo-waerlop-and-shawn-allen/1112754833?ean=9781466953895

https://itunes.apple.com/us/book/pedographs-and-gait-analysis/id554516085?mt=11

-Hardcopy available from our publisher:
http://bookstore.trafford.com/Products/SKU-000155825/Pedographs-and-Gait-Analysis.aspx

Show Notes:
Cold
Switching on a cold-shock protein may restore lost connections between brain cells & memory function in aging brain.  
http://www.bbc.com/news/health-30812438

-“Connections between brain cells - called synapses - are lost early on in several neurodegenerative conditions, and this exciting study has shown for the first time that switching on a cold-shock protein called RBM3 can prevent these losses.
http://www.pnas.org/content/111/20/7379.abstract

New study in mice in the inaugural issue of Brain Plasticity reports that new brain cell formation is enhanced by running.
http://neurosciencenews.com/neurogenesis-exercise-memory-3165/

Walking changes our mental state, and our mental state changes our walking.  60 sec audio clip.
http://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode/bouncy-gait-improves-mood/

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/…/151119122246.htm

Walking. You don’t have to have the pedal to the metal.
"Those who walked an average of seven blocks per day or more had a 36%, 54% and 47% lower risk of CHD, stroke and total CVD, respectively, compared to those who walked up to five blocks per week.”

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/…/151119122246.htm
New proprio study:
http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v18/n12/abs/nn.4162.html
Piezo2 is the principal mechanotransduction channel for proprioception
Seung-Hyun Woo et al,
Nature Neuroscience 18, 1756–1762 (2015) doi:10.1038/nn.4162Received 14 July 2015 Accepted 13 October 2015 Published online 09 November 2015

Magnesium intake higher than 250 mg/day associated with a 24% increase in leg power & 2.7% increase in muscle mass.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jbmr.2692/full

Dietary Magnesium Is Positively Associated With Skeletal Muscle Power and Indices of Muscle Mass and May Attenuate the Association Between Circulating C-Reactive Protein and Muscle Mass in Women

Ailsa A Welch et al.
http://www.readcube.com/articles/10.1002%2Fjbmr.2692?r3_referer=wol&tracking_action=preview_click&show_checkout=1&purchase_referrer=t.co&purchase_site_license=LICENSE_DENIED

Gray Cook
https://duker2p.wordpress.com/2015/11/16/illuminating-insights-gray-cook-part-1/

Carries, lots of carries
https://www.facebook.com/otpbooks/videos/1004044686323688/

Ankle spains and hip abductors

We see it ALL THE TIME. But sometimes it is nice to point out the obvious, just in case you are not looking for it.
“Conclusions: Our subjects with unilateral chronic ankle sprains had weaker hip abduction strength and less plantar-flexion range of motion on the involved sides. Clinicians should consider exercises to increase hip abduction strength when developing rehabilitation programs for patients with ankle sprains.”-Friel et al
Dr. Allen: if the hip abductors are weak, the leg will posture more adducted (ie, cross over type pattern) and this places the foot more directly below the body midline plumb, this will posture the foot in inversion and thus at greater risk for future inversion sprains.  This sets up the vicious cycle of hip abductor weakness, frontal plane drift of pelvis, inversion of the foot and more ankle sprain risks/events.  The cycle must be broken. The hip must be addressed. That lateral chain must be restored all the way up from the foot.  All stuff you likely already know, but good to find another study to validate.

Dr. Allen

J Athl Train. 2006; 41(1): 74–78.PMCID: PMC1421486Ipsilateral Hip Abductor Weakness After Inversion Ankle SprainKaren Friel,Nancy McLean,Christine Myers, and Maria Caceres
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1421486/

Foot “core” anyone?   And a good time was had by all. Day 1 of the event in Vancouver. Lots of info and a bonus exercise session. Thanks to all who attended and looking forward to another great day tomorrow!  We spent a great deal of time talking about muscular firing sequences and the reasoning as to why things fire when.   Take a look at the picture and focus on the tib posterior, flexor digitorum longus, and flexor hallucis longus. They fire from loading response and fire through terminal stance. Up to midstance, they act eccentrically to slow pronation and after midstance, they fire concentrically to assist in supination. Note the sequence starts with the tib posterior (more proximal attachments in the foot) and ends with the flexor hallucis longus, more distal attachements (because in “ideal” gait, the hallux is the last to leave the party (or the ground, in this case)). Stability is a priority, so the central or “core” of the foot needs to fire before adding on peripheral (appendicular) muscles. Remember the foot intrinsics fire from midstance to pre swing, further stabilizing the foot “core”  The Gait Guys

Foot “core” anyone?

And a good time was had by all. Day 1 of the event in Vancouver. Lots of info and a bonus exercise session. Thanks to all who attended and looking forward to another great day tomorrow!

We spent a great deal of time talking about muscular firing sequences and the reasoning as to why things fire when.

Take a look at the picture and focus on the tib posterior, flexor digitorum longus, and flexor hallucis longus. They fire from loading response and fire through terminal stance. Up to midstance, they act eccentrically to slow pronation and after midstance, they fire concentrically to assist in supination. Note the sequence starts with the tib posterior (more proximal attachments in the foot) and ends with the flexor hallucis longus, more distal attachements (because in “ideal” gait, the hallux is the last to leave the party (or the ground, in this case)). Stability is a priority, so the central or “core” of the foot needs to fire before adding on peripheral (appendicular) muscles. Remember the foot intrinsics fire from midstance to pre swing, further stabilizing the foot “core”

The Gait Guys

Vastus lateralis. Closed chain internal rotator of the thigh. Stimulation of this point (ST34) improves gait in elderly individuals (who we assume have compromised mechanoreceptors in the muscles and joints). Think about incorporating this   muscle into your rehab protocol, particularly in older folks.   Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011 Jan;92(1):7-14. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2010.09.023. Stimulation of acupoint ST-34 acutely improves gait performance in geriatric patients during rehabilitation: A randomized controlled trial. Hauer K1, Wendt I, Schwenk M, Rohr C, Oster P, Greten J.  “CONCLUSIONS: Study results showed that a 1-time administration of a specific acupoint stimulation regimen statistically significantly improved gait performance during geriatric ward rehabilitation. If sustainability of effects can be documented, acupuncture may prove to be an inexpensive intervention that may mildly improve motor performance in frail geriatric patients.”   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21187200   
  Commentary on this topic copied from our social media:  
  
    Reader:      The abstract doesn’t give much away. I suspect using the acupuncture technique DECREASED activity of the VL leading to a more balanced muscular response to gait…kinda like massaging out an overactive muscle - which I don’t like doing but people do…  
   The Gait Guys      Could be. We like to think of it as it created homeostasis of the muscular system. The effects of inserting a needle are not just local but global.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
  Reader:Hmm. I am not sure there is evidence to support that statement.     Something changed. Homeostasis was not necessarily achieved. Their gait improved. For how long is unknown. Also, it is unlikely that the people applying the acupuncture were blinded so that is a source of bias.     It is interesting for sure, but drawing conclusions is difficult.   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    T he Gait Guys      agreed. you bring up some good points. The folks doing the acupuncture were not blinded  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
   

Vastus lateralis. Closed chain internal rotator of the thigh. Stimulation of this point (ST34) improves gait in elderly individuals (who we assume have compromised mechanoreceptors in the muscles and joints). Think about incorporating this muscle into your rehab protocol, particularly in older folks. 

Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011 Jan;92(1):7-14. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2010.09.023.
Stimulation of acupoint ST-34 acutely improves gait performance in geriatric patients during rehabilitation: A randomized controlled trial.
Hauer K1, Wendt I, Schwenk M, Rohr C, Oster P, Greten J.

“CONCLUSIONS:
Study results showed that a 1-time administration of a specific acupoint stimulation regimen statistically significantly improved gait performance during geriatric ward rehabilitation. If sustainability of effects can be documented, acupuncture may prove to be an inexpensive intervention that may mildly improve motor performance in frail geriatric patients.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21187200

Commentary on this topic copied from our social media:

  • Reader: The abstract doesn’t give much away. I suspect using the acupuncture technique DECREASED activity of the VL leading to a more balanced muscular response to gait…kinda like massaging out an overactive muscle - which I don’t like doing but people do…
  • The Gait Guys Could be. We like to think of it as it created homeostasis of the muscular system. The effects of inserting a needle are not just local but global.
  • Reader:Hmm. I am not sure there is evidence to support that statement.  Something changed. Homeostasis was not necessarily achieved. Their gait improved. For how long is unknown. Also, it is unlikely that the people applying the acupuncture were blinded so that is a source of bias. It is interesting for sure, but drawing conclusions is difficult.
  • The Gait Guys agreed. you bring up some good points. The folks doing the acupuncture were not blinded

Podcast 66: Stem Cells, Running Form, Dartfish & Case Studes

A. Link to our server:

Direct Download: http://traffic.libsyn.com/thegaitguys/pod_66final.mp3

Permalink: http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-66-stem-cells-running-form-dartfish-case-studes-0

B. iTunes link:

https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-gait-guys-podcast/id559864138

C. Gait Guys online /download store (National Shoe Fit Certification and more !) :

http://store.payloadz.com/results/results.aspx?m=80204

D. other web based Gait Guys lectures:

www.onlinece.com   type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen,  ”Biomechanics”

______________

Today’s Show notes:

Duke researchers have found a new type of neuron in the adult brain that is capable of telling stem cells to make more new neurons.

 
2. A closer look at iOS 8′s Health app (video)http://9to5mac.com/2014/06/02/a-closer-look-at-ios-8s-health-app-video/
new HealthKit platform aggregator will allow developers of various health and fitness apps to have all related data populate within the Health app in iOS 8.
 
3. something fun bc it is from the onion……but there is some truth to the placebo right ?
American Medical Association Introduces New Highly Effective Placebo Doctors
American Medical Association announced Thursday the introduction of new placebo doctors to administer general practice medical care to the American public. 
4. a beautiful example from our blog post today June 4th on what you see isnt always the problem
The Right Form For Running - Dartfish
“The video showed that his right foot was … .
 
some random talk we can do on asymetries and symmetry– 
 
6. Case studies on posture, pronation, osteitis pubis and more.

A look at the Lunge. Are you ready to take the lunge?

Another one of our favorite exercises. Unfortunately, all too often it is executed improperly. Watch carefully, as we cover many points in detail.

Remember the mantra; Skill, Endurance, Strength. In that order. Not every individual is ready for every exercise you may give them. Be sure to build an adequate foundation before proceeding ti the next level.

This excerpt is taken from our video series, available for download here.

The Gait Guys. Join the movement and spread the word. .

The unbalanced athlete, motor pattern, team, joint etc…… is not efficient.  
 Like him or not, believing he should have lost his last fight (or not), Georges St-Pierre was/is one of the best MMA fighters of all time. He was once quoted as saying,  
 
   “In fighting, in evolution, in life,   efficiency is the key  ,” says St-Pierre.    
    "It’s not the most powerful animal that survives.   It’s the most efficient.  “   
 

  This certainly describes most of Georges fights. There were always bigger, faster, meaner, stronger opponents. However, most of his fights went the distance. Eight of his last nine fights went to a five round decision. Now, there are those who will say that he didn’t have the finishing power or submission skills to close fights in the earlier rounds, and that is debatable for sure.  However, there is no doubt that anyone’s best fighting attributes will diminish as the rounds progress and fatigue sets in.  But, perhaps this is an equalizer when someone doesn’t have one single "golden right hand”, or what have you.    Efficiency can be the great equalizer.     
  St-Pierre isn’t your typical fighter. He’s arguably the best mixed martial artist in the world, a 5-foot 11-inch, 190-pound destroyer. Up until his most recent fight with Johnny Hendricks, he had not lost a round in more than 3 years, that is pure efficiency ! Arguably, he is faster than other fighters, he is more fit, has a greater range of skills, has better endurance …  in a Darwinian sense, perhaps   more efficient ?     
 Here at the Gait Guys we are always considering efficiency.  As you can see from the slide above, there are many factors that can diminish efficiency.  We strive for as much symmetry as we can because with neuromuscular symmetry efficiency can be maximized.  Keep in mind however, that total symmetry is not always possible. Most people have two different feet, often one is more varus because it sat against the mothers rounded belly in utero.  And, one tibia is often more bowed or torsioned than the other for the same reason.  So, perfect symmetry is not always possible or guaranteed. But, one can do alot to gain as much physical symmetry as possible through detailed study of your client. (Remember, just because things look symmetrical does not mean that they function symmetrically ! This game is not that easy ! But, for some of the uneducated, it may seem to be !)  When physical symmetry is regained often the sensory-motor nervous system becomes functionally more symmetrical.  And, this is a flippable phenomenon, when neuro symmetry is driven often physical symmetry will be driven in time.   
 Think about the afferent input to the cortex from the peripheral receptors in the skin (Paccinian corpuscles, Merkels discs, etc); the joint mechanorecpetors (types I-IV) and muscle receptors (spindles and Golgi tendon organs). Generally speaking, they travel up the dorsal columns on the back of the spinal cord to the thalamus and then the cortex; up the dorsal spinocerebelllar tract, to the cerebellar hemispheres; the spino- reticular tract to the reticular formation, or in the case of the upper cervical spine, directly into or flocculonodular lobe of the cerebellum. This information needs to be equal and opposite from each side of the extremity (flexors and extensors) as well as the right and left sides of the body. This “Balance” or “Homeostasis” or what the Chinese called Yin and Yang is key to efficiency. 
 In your workouts and rehab, strive for symmetry. We like to say “Tailor your exercises to the weaker side”. This helps to create more equality rather than a larger disparity. 
 The Gait Guys. Making it Real…Each Day….On the Blog…

The unbalanced athlete, motor pattern, team, joint etc…… is not efficient.

Like him or not, believing he should have lost his last fight (or not), Georges St-Pierre was/is one of the best MMA fighters of all time. He was once quoted as saying, 

“In fighting, in evolution, in life, efficiency is the key,” says St-Pierre. 

 "It’s not the most powerful animal that survives. It’s the most efficient.

This certainly describes most of Georges fights. There were always bigger, faster, meaner, stronger opponents. However, most of his fights went the distance. Eight of his last nine fights went to a five round decision. Now, there are those who will say that he didn’t have the finishing power or submission skills to close fights in the earlier rounds, and that is debatable for sure.  However, there is no doubt that anyone’s best fighting attributes will diminish as the rounds progress and fatigue sets in.  But, perhaps this is an equalizer when someone doesn’t have one single "golden right hand”, or what have you.  Efficiency can be the great equalizer.

St-Pierre isn’t your typical fighter. He’s arguably the best mixed martial artist in the world, a 5-foot 11-inch, 190-pound destroyer. Up until his most recent fight with Johnny Hendricks, he had not lost a round in more than 3 years, that is pure efficiency ! Arguably, he is faster than other fighters, he is more fit, has a greater range of skills, has better endurance …  in a Darwinian sense, perhaps more efficient ?

Here at the Gait Guys we are always considering efficiency.  As you can see from the slide above, there are many factors that can diminish efficiency.  We strive for as much symmetry as we can because with neuromuscular symmetry efficiency can be maximized.  Keep in mind however, that total symmetry is not always possible. Most people have two different feet, often one is more varus because it sat against the mothers rounded belly in utero.  And, one tibia is often more bowed or torsioned than the other for the same reason.  So, perfect symmetry is not always possible or guaranteed. But, one can do alot to gain as much physical symmetry as possible through detailed study of your client. (Remember, just because things look symmetrical does not mean that they function symmetrically ! This game is not that easy ! But, for some of the uneducated, it may seem to be !)  When physical symmetry is regained often the sensory-motor nervous system becomes functionally more symmetrical.  And, this is a flippable phenomenon, when neuro symmetry is driven often physical symmetry will be driven in time.  

Think about the afferent input to the cortex from the peripheral receptors in the skin (Paccinian corpuscles, Merkels discs, etc); the joint mechanorecpetors (types I-IV) and muscle receptors (spindles and Golgi tendon organs). Generally speaking, they travel up the dorsal columns on the back of the spinal cord to the thalamus and then the cortex; up the dorsal spinocerebelllar tract, to the cerebellar hemispheres; the spino- reticular tract to the reticular formation, or in the case of the upper cervical spine, directly into or flocculonodular lobe of the cerebellum. This information needs to be equal and opposite from each side of the extremity (flexors and extensors) as well as the right and left sides of the body. This “Balance” or “Homeostasis” or what the Chinese called Yin and Yang is key to efficiency.

In your workouts and rehab, strive for symmetry. We like to say “Tailor your exercises to the weaker side”. This helps to create more equality rather than a larger disparity.

The Gait Guys. Making it Real…Each Day….On the Blog…

Welcome to REWIND FRIDAY.

Some light, entertaining gait candy for you to see. This one is from May 2011; an oldie but a goodie. Enjoy!

Lets look at this Hitchcock classic “North by Northwest” and check out Cary’s form.

1st of all, what an arm swing! Think of all that energy it is sapping from the rest of his muscular system. He must be hiding something, but what? We can only see him from the waist up, so we may never actually know. Did you notice how he initially only turns to the right? Did you pick up on the flexion at the waist? How about that torso bob from side to side? Not much to his hip abductors now are there?

The only thing he has going for him is he is wearing leather soled shoes, which have been shown to have one of the lowest impact loading on the body (yes, you read that right; increased cushioning INCREASES impact forces, but that’s not what we are here to talk about). Oh yea, he actually impacts the ground at the end of the sequence. I guess if his technique was better, he would have hit even HARDER.

Next sequence, we are off to a good start, look at that forward lean to start! This is essential to good technique. He loses that form pretty quickly; we can still see that forward flexion at the waist; certainly costing him energy by not using his core.

Finally, we get a posterior view at the end, but the uneven surface makes it difficult to make an analysis.

We think Cary would certainly give Lola a run for her money. Cary, next time, engage your core and watch your step…

We Remain….The Gait Guys