We’ve told you once and we will tell you again…

Folks with femoral retro torsion often experience lower back pain with twisting movements

This left handed hydrology engineer Presented to the office with an acute onset of lower back pain following “swinging a softball bat”. He comments that he always “hit it out of the park“ and hit “five home runs“ in the last game prior to his backs demise.

note the internal tibial torsion. drop a plumbline from the tibial tuberosity. it should pass through the 2nd met or between the 2nd and 3rd met shafts

note the internal tibial torsion. drop a plumbline from the tibial tuberosity. it should pass through the 2nd met or between the 2nd and 3rd met shafts

note the internal tibial torsion. drop a plumbline from the tibial tuberosity. it should pass through the 2nd met or between the 2nd and 3rd met shafts

note the internal tibial torsion. drop a plumbline from the tibial tuberosity. it should pass through the 2nd met or between the 2nd and 3rd met shafts

He presented antalgic with a pelvic shift to the left side, flexion of the lumbar spine with 0° extension and a complete loss of the lumbar lordosis. He could not extend his lumbar spine past 0° and was able to flex approximately 70. Lateral bending was approximately 20° on each side. Neurological exam negative. Physical exam revealed bilateral femoral retro torsion as seen above. Note above the loss of internal rotation at the hips of both legs, thus he has very limited internal rotation of the hips. Femoral retroversion means that the angle of the neck of the femur (also known as the femoral neck angle) is less than 8°, severely limiting internal rotation of the hip and often leading to CAM lesions.

Stand like you’re in a batters box and swing like you’re left handed. What do you notice? As you come through your swing your left hip externally rotates and your right hip must internally rotate. He has no internal rotation of the right hip and on a good day, the lumbar spine has about 5° of rotation with half of that occurring at the lumbosacral junction. Guess what? The facet joints are going to become compressed!

bisect the calcaneus. the line should fall though the 2nd metatarsal or between the 2nd and 3rd met shafts

bisect the calcaneus. the line should fall though the 2nd metatarsal or between the 2nd and 3rd met shafts

bisect the calcaneus. the line should fall though the 2nd metatarsal or between the 2nd and 3rd met shafts

bisect the calcaneus. the line should fall though the 2nd metatarsal or between the 2nd and 3rd met shafts

Now combine that with bilateral 4 foot adductus (see photos above). His foot is already in supination so it is a poor shock observer.

Go back to your “batters box“. Come through your swing left handed. What do you notice? The left foot goes into a greater amount of pronation in the right foot goes into a greater amount of supination. Do you think this is going to help the amount of internal rotation available to the hip?

When folks present with lower back pain due to twisting injuries, make sure to check for femoral torsions. They’re often present with internal tibial torsion, which is also present in this individual.

Remember a while ago we said “things occur in threes”. That goes for congenital abnormalities as well: in this patient: femoral retro torsion, internal tibial torsion and forefoot adductus.

What do we do? Treat locally to reduce inflammation and take steps to try to improve internal rotation of the hips bilaterally as well as having him externally rotate his right foot when he is in the batteries box to allow him to "create" more internal rotation of the right hip.

Dr Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys

#internalrotation #hipproblem #femoraltorsion #femoralversion #retroversion #retrotorsion #thegaitguys

Right-sided knee pain in a cyclist...due to his hip?

This 54-year-old pilot presented to our office with pain on the outside of his right knee while cycling with his wife who is currently training for the triple bypass. The discomfort comes on later in the ride and is largely lateral. He thought it may be due to a seat position so he raised his seat up but then shortly developed lower back discomfort. Lowered the seat back down and presents to the office today. He is currently on a 54 cm Pierello road bike with a straight top tube.

Physical exam revealed him to have moderately limited internal rotation of the right hip which was approximately 5 degrees external rotation; left side had approximately 5 degrees of internal rotation. There was no significant leg length discrepancy or internal tibial torsion. Musculature, save for the long extensors the toes tests 5/5 and strong. Hip extension is 0 degrees bilaterally 5 flexion approximately 120 degrees with tightness mostly in the iliopsoas and some in the rectus femoris. Knee stability tests are unremarkable. Some patellofemoral discomfort with compression on the right. Palpable tightness in the right IT band.

X-rays revealed degenerative changes at the inferior aspect of the right acetabulum with a small spur an osteophyte formation.

His seat height was set so that at bottom dead center with the seat tube he had a 30 degree bend in his knee. Seat fore and aft position placed the knee over pedal spindle behind central axis of the pedal. His pedal stroke, seen on the video, reveals moderate internal rotation and medial displacement of the knee on the right side.

So what is going on?

It’s all about how folks compensate. This gent has very limited internal rotation of the right hip. Due to the nature of cycling, he is REALLY TRYING to get his 1st MTP down to the pedal to generate power. This is not unusual among cyclists, which is why what you think should be happening in gait does not always transfer over to cycling. in doing so, he MUST rotate SOMETHING forward (in this case his pelvis) medially to create the internal rotation needed. From this scenario, you can see how the posturing would increase knee valve and offer a mechanical advantage to the vastus lateralis, causing patello femoral dysfunction and knee pain.

So we did we do?

  • Moved his seat forward so that a line drawn from between the patella and tibial tuberosity fell through the center axis of the pedal

  • Angled his cleat so that he is able to have a greater progression angle moving forward, bringing his knee more into the sagittal plane

  • Began working on the hip to increase internal rotation working on the gluteus minimus, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris as well as hip capsule and ilio/ischio/pubofemoral ligaments

Dr Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys

#kneepain #cycling #hipproblem #femoralretrotorsion #thegaitguys #torsion

Things seem to come in 3's...

Things tend to occur in threes. This includes congenital abnormalities. Take a look this gentleman who came in to see us with lower back pain.

Highlights with pictures below:

  • bilateral femoral retrotorsion

  • bilateral internal tibial torsion

  • forefoot (metatarsus) adductus

So why LBP? Our theory is the lack of internal rotation of the lower extremities forces that motion to occur somewhere; the next mobile area just north is the lumbar spine, where there is limited rotation available, usually about 5 degrees.

Dr Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys.

#tibialtorsion #femoraltorsion #femoralretrotorsion #lowbackpain #thegaitguys #gaitproblem

this is his left hip in full internal rotation. note that he does go past zero.

this is his left hip in full internal rotation. note that he does go past zero.

full internal rotation of the right hip; note he does not go past zero

full internal rotation of the right hip; note he does not go past zero

note the internal tibial torsion. a line dropped from the tibial tuberosity should go through the 2nd metatarsal or between the 2nd and 3rd.

note the internal tibial torsion. a line dropped from the tibial tuberosity should go through the 2nd metatarsal or between the 2nd and 3rd.

ditto for the keft

ditto for the keft

a line bisecting the calcaneus should pass between the 2nd and 3rd metatarsal shafts. If talar tosion was present, the rearfoot would appear more adducted

a line bisecting the calcaneus should pass between the 2nd and 3rd metatarsal shafts. If talar tosion was present, the rearfoot would appear more adducted

less adductus but still present

less adductus but still present

look at that long flexor response in compensation. What can you say about the quadratus plantae? NO bueno…

look at that long flexor response in compensation. What can you say about the quadratus plantae? NO bueno…

Ditto!

Ditto!

Low Back Pain? Check for Femoral Retrotorsion on the Same Side

note the right sided leg length discrepancy

note the right sided leg length discrepancy

right tibia is anatomically shorter

right tibia is anatomically shorter

more internal rotation available on the left side at the hip. Note the internal tibial torsion as well

more internal rotation available on the left side at the hip. Note the internal tibial torsion as well

very little internal rotation available at the right hip

very little internal rotation available at the right hip

This right handed concrete worker presented to our office with right-sided lower back pain. He was lifting a bag of concrete moving from left to right which she estimates weighing between 60 and 80 pounds. He did this repetitively throughout the day and subsequently developed right sided lower back pain. The pain is in the suprailiac region and is described as dull, achey. Is exacerbated by right rotation and right lateral bending.

His exam found him to have a right sided anatomical leg length discrepancy, tibial left (see above) and femoral retro torsion on the right with no internal rotation of the hip past 0 degrees (see picture of full internal rotation of the right hip and cmpare it with the left); left side had approximately 10 degrees internal rotation. He also has bilateral internal tibial torsion, R > L. Palpation findings revealed tightness in the lumbar multifidus and quadratus lumborum with a loss of lateral bending to the right at L2 through L4 and a loss of flexion about the right sacroiliac joint. Lower extremity reflexes were 2+ with bilateral symmetry; sensation to vibration was intact at the distal phalanges; motor strength was strong and graded as 5/5.

Think about the implications of his right-sided leg length discrepancy first. This places his foot and a relative supinated posture compared to the left. Remember that supination is plantar flexion, inversion and adduction.

His femoral retro torsion on the right limits his internal rotation at the hip. When his foot planted with a diminished progression angle secondary to the internal tibial torsion, and he has to rotate from left to right, very little, if any motion, can occur at the right hip and therefore must occur in the lumbar spine. Remember the lumbar spine has very limited range of motion begin with with most of that occurring at the L5-S1 junction, depending upon its anatomy. Now superimpose a long lever load and rotary force. Back pain!

We instructed him on proper lifting technique and also talked about keeping the shoulders and hips in the same plane when lifting or load. If he does need to lift a load and spin unilateral on his right lower extremity, we asked him to externally rotate the right lower extremity. He was treated with manipulation and neuromuscular acupuncture.

If you have somebody with unilateral lower back pain, think about the implications if they have any femoral torsion or version present

Dr. Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys.

#lowbackpain #LBP #femoralretrotorsion #femoral #torsion #gait #gaitanalysis #thegaituys

NO hip internal rotation? Forget the glutes, have you looked at the femur?

Screen Shot 2019-02-14 at 3.13.23 PM.png

Some developmental versions involve the femur. The degree of version is the angle between an imaginary line drawn through the condyles of the femur and an imaginary line drawn through the head and neck of the femur. This is often referred to as the femoral neck angle or FNA.

Beginning about the 3rd month of embryological development (Lanz and Mayet 1953) and reaches about 40 degrees (with an average of 30-60 degrees) at birth. It then decreases 25-30 degrees by adulthood to 8-20 degrees with males being at the lower and females at the upper end of the range.

The FNA angle, therefore, diminishes about 1.5 degrees a year until about 15 years of age. Femoral neck anteversion angle is typically symmetrical from the left side to the right side.

What causes torsion in the first place? By the sixth month in utero, the lumbar spine and hips of the fetus are fully flexed, so perhaps it is positional. Other sources say it coincides with the degree of osteogenesis. There is a growing consensus that muscular forces are responsible, particularly the iliopsoas  or possibly the medial and lateral hip rotators.

Additional changes can occur after birth, particularly with sitting postures. “W” sitting or “cross legged” sitting have been associated with altering the available range of motion and thus the FNA, with the range increased in the direction the hip was held in; W sitting causing increased internal rotation and antetorsion and cross legged causing external rotation and retro torsion.

There are at least 3 reasons we need to understand torsions and versions, They can alter the progression angle of gait, they usually affect the available ranges of motion of the limb and they can alter the coronal plane orientation of the limb.

1. fermoral torsions often alter the progression angle of gait.  In femoral antetorsion torsion, the knees often face inward, resulting in an intoed gait and a decreased progression angle of the foot. This can be differentiated from internal tibial torsion (ITT) by looking at the tibia and studying the position of the tibial tuberosity with respect to the foot, particularly the 2nd metatarsal. In ITT, the foot points inward while the tibial tuberosity points straight ahead. In an individual with no torsion, the tibial tuberosity lines up with the 2nd metatarsal. If the tibial tuerosity and 2nd met are lined up,  and the knees still point inward, the individual probably has femoral ante torsion. Remember that a decreased progression angle is often associated with a decreased step width whereas an increased angle is often associated with an increased step width. See the person with external tibial torsion in the above picture?

2. Femoral torsions affect available ranges of motion of the limb. We remember that the thigh leg needs to internally rotate the requisite 4-6 degrees from initial contact to midstance (most folks have 40 degrees) If it is already fully internally rotated (as it may be with femoral retro torsion), that range of motion must be created or compensated for elsewhere. This, much like internal tibial torsion, can result in external rotation of the affected lower limb to create the range of motion needed.

Femoral retro torsion results in less internal rotation of the limb, and increased external rotation.

Femoral ante torsion results in less external rotation of the limb, and increased internal rotation.

3. femoral torsions usually do not effect the coronal plane orientation of the lower limb, since the “spin” is in the transverse or horizontal plane.

The take home message here about femoral torsions is that no matter what the cause:

  •  FNA values that exist one to two standard deviations outside the range are considered “torsions”

  • Decreased values (ie, less than 8 degrees) are called “retro torsion” and increased values (greater than 20 degrees) are called “ante torsion”

  • Retro torsion causes a limitation of available internal rotation of the hip and an increase in external rotation

  • Ante torsion causes an increase in available internal rotation  of the hip and decrease in external rotation

  • Femoral ante torsion will be perpetuated by “W” sitting (sitting on knees with the feet outside the thighs, promoting internal rotation of the femur)

  • Femoral antetorsion will be perpetuated by sitting cross legged, which forces the thigh into external rotation.

Dr Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys

#gait, gait analysis, #thegaitguys, #femoraltorsion, #antetorsion, #retrotorsion

Got a kid that "toes in"?

image source: W Phillips https://somepomed.org/articulos/contents/mobipreview.htm?38/8/39046

image source: W Phillips https://somepomed.org/articulos/contents/mobipreview.htm?38/8/39046

Photo Credit: Illustration based off Jake Pett, B.F.A. and Stuart Pett,  M.D illustration for International Association for Dance Medicine and  Science 2011

Photo Credit: Illustration based off Jake Pett, B.F.A. and Stuart Pett, M.D illustration for International Association for Dance Medicine and Science 2011

image courtesy: T Michaud

image courtesy: T Michaud

Got a kid that "toes in" during gait? Are you seeing this?

  • smaller foot progression angle

  • greater knee adduction

  • more internally rotated and flexed hips

  • greater anterior pelvic tilt

Wondering what could be causing it?

We start life with the hips anteverted (ie, the angle of the neck of the femur with the shaft of the femur is > 12 degrees; in fact at birth it is around 35 degrees) and this angle should decrease as we age to about 8-12 degrees). When we stand, the heads of our femurs point anteriorly; it is just a matter of how much (ante version or ante torsion) or how little (retro version or retro torsion) that is.

The degree of version is the angle between an imaginary line drawn through the condyles of the femur and an imaginary line drawn through the head and neck of the femur. This is often referred to as the femoral neck angle or FNA.

Beginning about the 3rd month of embryological development (Lanz and Mayet 1953) and reaches about 40 degrees (with an average of 30-60 degrees) at birth. It then decreases 25-30 degrees by adulthood to 8-20 degrees with males being at the lower and females at the upper end of the range.

The angle of the femur neck to its shaft diminishes about 1.5 degrees a year until about 15 years of age. Femoral neck anteversion angle is typically symmetrical from the left side to the right side.

What causes torsion in the first place? By the sixth month in utero, the lumbar spine and hips of the fetus are fully flexed, so perhaps it is positional. Other sources say it coincides with the degree of osteogenesis. There is a growing consensus that muscular forces are responsible, particularly the iliopsoas or possibly the medial and lateral hip rotators.

Additional changes can occur after birth, particularly with sitting postures. “W” sitting or “cross legged” sitting have been associated with altering the available range of motion and thus the FNA, with the range increased in the direction the hip was held in; W sitting causing increased internal rotation and antetorsion and cross legged causing external rotation and retro torsion.

There are at least 3 reasons we need to understand torsions and versions, They can alter the progression angle of gait, they usually affect the available ranges of motion of the limb and they can alter the coronal plane orientation of the limb.

1. fermoral torsions often alter the progression angle of gait. In femoral antetorsion torsion, the knees often face inward, resulting in an intoed gait and a decreased progression angle of the foot. This can be differentiated from internal tibial torsion (ITT) by looking at the tibia and studying the position of the tibial tuberosity with respect to the foot, particularly the 2nd metatarsal. In ITT, the foot points inward while the tibial tuberosity points straight ahead. In an individual with no torsion, the tibial tuberosity lines up with the 2nd metatarsal. If the tibial tuerosity and 2nd met are lined up, and the knees still point inward, the individual probably has femoral ante torsion. Remember that a decreased progression angle is often associated with a decreased step width whereas an increased angle is often associated with an increased step width. 

2. Femoral torsions affect available ranges of motion of the limb. We remember that the thigh leg needs to internally rotate the requisite 4-6 degrees from initial contact to midstance (most folks have 40 degrees) If it is already fully internally rotated (as it may be with femoral retro torsion), that range of motion must be created or compensated for elsewhere. This, much like internal tibial torsion, can result in external rotation of the affected lower limb to create the range of motion needed.

Femoral retro torsion results in less internal rotation of the limb, and increased external rotation.

Femoral ante torsion results in less external rotation of the limb, and increased internal rotation.

3. femoral torsions usually do not effect the coronal plane orientation of the lower limb, since the “spin” is in the transverse or horizontal plane.

 

The take home message here about femoral torsions is that no matter what the cause:

  • the angle of the femur neck to shaft values that exist one to two standard deviations outside the range are considered “torsions”

  • Decreased values (ie, less than 8 degrees) are called “retro torsion” and increased values (greater than 20 degrees) are called “ante torsion”

  • Retro torsion causes a limitation of available internal rotation of the hip and an increase in external rotation

  • Ante torsion causes an increase in available internal rotation of the hip and decrease in external rotation

  • Femoral ante torsion will be perpetuated by “W” sitting (sitting on knees with the feet outside the thighs, promoting internal rotation of the femur)

  • Femoral antetorsion will be perpetuated by sitting cross legged, which forces the thigh into external rotation.

 

Great paper here

link to full text: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jor.22746/abstract;jsessionid=AC848D963DCA526402D71260BDFC91F6.f04t04

Dr Ivo, one of the Gait Guys

#gait,#gaitanalysis,#femoralneckangle, #femoraltorsion, #antetorsion, #retrotorsion, #toein

 

All that creaks may not be pathological...

image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Runners-knee_SAG.jpg

image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Runners-knee_SAG.jpg

Gal with creaky knees? Patellar crepitus? Does all that noise mean something?

Well, it means that knee function is suboptimal and more than likely, there is abnormal patellar tracking. But is that clinically significant? The answer is ....maybe.

This study (1) looked at over 300 women, about 1/2 with patellofemoral pain and half without looking at the following outcomes: 

  • the knee crepitis test
  • anterior knee pain scale
  • self reported knee pain in the last month
  • knee pain after 10 squats 
  • knee pain after climbing 10 stairs

They found that if you had patello femoral pain, you were 4 times more likely to have crepitus than not, but there was no correlation of crepitus with  Knee crepitus had no relationship with function, physical activity level , worst pain, pain climbing stairs or pain squatting. 

We would have loved to have seen any correlation in this group with knee valgus angles (i.e. "Q" angles 2 ) and how much tibial or femoral torsion was present (as these things change pressure and contact area 3), but that will hopefully be found in the literature elsewhere. 

 

1. , Pazzinatto MFPriore LBDFerreira ASBriani RVFerrari DBazett-Jones DAzevedo FM. Knee crepitus is prevalent in women with patellofemoral pain, but is not related with function, physical activity and pain. Phys Ther Sport. 2018 Sep;33:7-11. doi: 10.1016/j.ptsp.2018.06.002. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

2. Emami MJ1, Ghahramani MHAbdinejad FNamazi H. Q-angle: an invaluable parameter for evaluation of anterior knee pain. Arch Iran Med. 2007 Jan;10(1):24-6.

3. Thay Q. Lee, PhD, Garrett Morris, BS, Rick P. Csintalan, MDThe Influence of Tibial and Femoral Rotation on Patellofemoral Contact Area and Pressure Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2003;33:686-693.

wider, flatter, less mobile feet

Screen Shot 2018-05-03 at 6.59.44 AM.png

If you have patella femoral pain, the older you get, the wider (probably for increased proprioception), flatter (possibly due to loss of intrinsic strength and extensor tone) and less mobile (for stability) you feet become. 

 

"This study observed that in individuals with PFP, those aged 40–50 years had less foot mobility than younger adults aged 18–29 years, as evidenced by measures of midfoot height mobility and foot mobility magnitude. These differences represented a moderate effect size, and exceed the intra-rater minimal detectable change (MDC 95%) associated with these measures (midfoot height mobility 2 mm; foot mobility magnitude 3.1 mm). The differences between age groups were specific to both midfoot height mobility and foot mobility magnitude; however, there were no differences in midfoot width mobility."

 

Tan JM, Crossley KM, Vicenzino B, Menz HB, Munteanu SE, Collins NJ. Age-related differences in foot mobility in individuals with patellofemoral pain. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research. 2018;11:5. doi:10.1186/s13047-018-0249-2.

free full text: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5815185/

 

image from: http://boneandspine.com/what-is-anteversion-and-retroversion/

image from: http://boneandspine.com/what-is-anteversion-and-retroversion/

Femoral versions and torsions?

While searching for something else, we ran across this post. A pretty good lay discussion and explanation about femoral torsions. Technically, versions are NORMAL variations or limb rotations that are within accepted limits and TORSIONS are pathological, when it measures 2 or greater standard deviations from the mean and is considered pathological. Femoral versions are the angular difference between the transcondylar and transcervical axes. The femur is normally anteverted (1). 

We liked the last section talking about how to compensate for them and "acceptable" work arounds and biomechanics. 

https://b-reddy.org/2013/05/09/talking-about-hip-retroversion/

1. Staehli L in: Fundamentals of Pediatric Orthopedics Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Jun 15, 2015 p 144

How can feet relate to golf swing?

This 52 year old right handed gentleman presented with pain at the thoracolumbar junction after playing golf. He noticed he had a limited amount of “back swing” and pain at the end of his “follow through”.

Take a look a these pix and think about why.

Full internal rotation

Full internal rotation

full external rotation

full external rotation

full internal rotation

full internal rotation

full external rotation

full external rotation

neutral

neutral

neutral

neutral

Hopefully, in addition to he having hairy and scarred legs (he is a contractor by trade), you noted the following

  • Top: note the normal internal rotation of the right hip; You need 4 degrees to walk normally and most folks have close to 40 degrees. He also has internal tibial torsion.
  • second picture: loss of external rotation of the right hip. Again, you need 4 degrees (from neutral) of external rotation of the hip to supinate and walk normally.
  • third picture: normal internal rotation of the left hip; internal tibial torsion
  • 4th picture: limited external rotation of the left hip, especially with respect ti the amount of internal rotation present; this is to a greater degree than the right
  • last 2 pictures: note the amount of tibial varum and tibial torsion. Yes, with this much varum, he has a forefoot varus.

The brain is wired so that it will (generally) not allow you to walk with your toes pointing in (pigeon toed), so you rotate them out to somewhat of a normal progression angle. If you have internal tibial torsion, this places the knees outside the saggital plane. (For more on tibial torsion, click here.) If you rotate your extremity outward, and already have a limited amount of range of motion available, you will take up some of that range of motion, making less available for normal physiological function. If the motion cannot occur at the knee or hip, it will usually occur at the next available joint cephalad, in this case the spine.

The lumbar spine has a limited amount of rotation available, ranging from 1.2-1.7 degrees per segment in a normal spine (1). This is generally less in degenerative conditions (2).

Place your feet on the ground with your feet pointing straight ahead. Now simulate a right handed golf swing, bending slightly at the waist androtating your body backward to the right. Now slowly swing and follow through from right to left. Note what happens to your hips: as you wind back to the right, the left hip is externally rotating and the right hip is internally rotating. As you follow through to the left, your right, your hip must externally rotate and your left hip must externally rotate. Can you see how his left hip is inhibiting his back swing and his right hip is limitinghis follow through? Can you see that because of his internal tibial torsion, he has already “used up” some of his external rotation range of motion?

If he does not have enough range of motion in the hip, where will it come from?

he will “borrow it” from a joint more north of the hip, in this case, his spine. More motion will occur at the thoracolumbar junction, since most likely (because of degenerative change) the most is available there; but you can only “borrow” so much before you need to “Pay it back”. In this case, he over rotated and injured the joint.

What did we do?

  • we treated the injured joint locally, with manipulation of the pathomechanical segments
  • we reduced inflammation and muscle spasm with acupuncture
  • we gave him some lumbar and throacolumbar stabilization exercises: founders exercise, extension holds, non tripod, cross crawl, pull ups
  • we gave him foot exercises to reduce his forefoot varus: tripod standing, EHB, lift-spread-reach
  • we had him externally rotate both feet (duck) when playing golf

The Gait Guys. Helping you to store up lots “in your bank” of foot and gait literacy, so you can help people when they need to “pay it back”, one case at a time.

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2223353/

(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3705911/

QL and Patellofemoral Pain?

photo credit: https://www.t-nation.com/training/training-disasters

photo credit: https://www.t-nation.com/training/training-disasters

"Subjects with PFP(patello femoral pain) have a higher prevalence of MTrPs (Myofascial trigger points) in bilateral GMe (gluteus medius)) and QL (quadratus lumborum) muscles. They demonstrate less hip abduction strength compared with controls, but the TPPRT (trigger point pressure release therapy, AKA ischemic compression) did not result in an increase in hip abduction strength. "

It is not surprising that when the hip is involved, the knee will be involved. As Dr. Allen often likes to say "the knee is basically in joint between 2 ball and socket joints ".

The gluteus medius and quadratus lumborum, along with the adductors are coronal plane stabilizers of the pelvis. They both have rotational components to their function as well affecting the hip directly for the former and lumbar spine for the latter. You can see our other QL articles about this here and here.

It is not much of a stretch to imagine that dysfunction of these muscles could result in trigger points and/or dysfunction of the knee (or foot for that matter ) could cause trigger points in these muscles.

Here is an article (1) examining trigger points in the gluteus medius and quadratus lumborum which, if you are familiar with Porterfield and DeRosa's work (2), are intimately linked during gait. We found it interesting that skin nick compression did not increase hip abduction strength where we find dry needling and intramuscular therapy often do.

Don't overlook these muscles and this important relationship.

 

 

  1. Roach, Sean et al.Prevalence of Myofascial Trigger Points in the Hip in Patellofemoral Pain Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation , Volume 94 , Issue 3 , 522 - 526link to free full text article: http://www.archives-pmr.org/article/S0003-9993(12)01079-9/fulltexthttp://www.archives-pmr.org/article/S0003-9993(12)01079-9/fulltext

  2. J. Porterfield, C. DeRosa (Eds.) Mechanical low back pain. 2nd ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia; 1991

 

Varus anyone?

Varus anyone?

Does patello femoral pain have anything to do with rearfoot varus? Perhaps, according to this study:

" A small but significant increase in rearfoot varus was found in the patellofemoral pain group compared with the control group (8.9 vs. 6.8 degrees; p = .0002). These results suggest that increased rearfoot varus may be a contributing factor in patellofemoral pain and should be assessed when evaluating the events at the subtalar joint and the lower extremity. In addition, it has been demonstrated that consistent rearfoot measurements can be obtained by an individual clinician."


Powers CM, Maffucci R, Hampton S. Rearfoot posture in subjects with patellofemoral pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1995 Oct;22(4):155-60.

Unless you have ownership....

Compliance is often the issue ...especially in younger folks

Just say no to the exercise video. You need:

  • understanding on the patients part of the pathology and the importance of the rehab
  • buy in on the patients part
  • a way to monitor progress with objective outcomes

a nice review article in LER, full text here

additionally, this was covered in a great PODcast by David Pope here: http://physioedge.com.au/physio-edge-039-patellofemoral-pain-adolescents-dr-michael-rathleff/

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 Why does this gal have so much limited external rotation of her legs? 

 We have discussed torsions and versions here on the blog many times before. We rarely see femoral antetorsion. She came in to see us with the pain following a total hip replacement on the right.

 Note that she has fairly good internal rotation of the hips bilaterally but limited external rotation. This is usually not the case, as most folks lose internal rotation. We need 4 to 6° internal and external rotation to walk normally. This poor gal has very little external rotation available to her.

Have you figured out what’s going on with hips yet? She has a condition called femoral ante torsion.   This means that the angle of the femoral neck is in excess of 12°. This will allow her to have a lot of internal rotation but very little external rotation.  She will need to either “create” or “borrow” her requisite external rotation from somewhere. In this case she decreases her progression of gait (intoed), and borrows the remainder from her lumbar spine.

 So what do we do? We attempt to create more external rotation. We are accomplishing this with exercises that emphasize external rotation, acupuncture/needling of the hip capsule and musculature which would promote external rotation (posterior fibers of gluteus medius,  gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, biceps femoris). A few degrees can go a very long way as they have in this patient. 

confused? Did you miss our awesome post on femoral torsions: click here to learn more.

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A visual example of the consequences of a leg length discrepancy.

This patient has an anatomical (femoral) discrepancy between three and 5 mm. She has occasional lower back discomfort and also describes being very “aware” of her second and third metatarsals on the left foot during running.

You can clearly see the difference in where patterns on her flip-flops. Note how much more in varus wear on the left side compared to the right. This is most likely in compensation for an increased supination moment on that side. She is constantly trying to lengthen her left side by anteriorly rotated pelvis on that side and supinating her foot  and trying to “short” the right side by rotating the pelvis posteriorly and pronating the foot.

With the pelvic rotation present described above (which is what we found in the exam) you can see how she has intermittent low back pain. Combine this with the fact that she runs a daycare and is extremely right-handed and you can see part of the problem.

Leg length discrepancies become clinically important when they resulting in a compensation pattern that no longer works for the patient. Be on the lookout for differences and wear patterns from side to side.

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 Every foot has a story. 

 This is not your typical “in this person has internal tibial torsion, yada yada yada” post.  This post poses a question and the question is “Why does this gentleman have a forefoot adductus?”

The first two pictures show me fully internally rotating the patients left leg. You will note that he does not go past zero degrees and he has femoral retroversion. He also has bilateral internal tibial torsion, which is visible in most of the pictures. The next two pictures show me fully internally rotating his right leg, with limited motion, as well and internal tibial torsion, which is worse on this ® side

 The large middle picture shows him rest. Note the bilateral external rotation of the legs. This is most likely to create some internal rotation, because thatis a position of comfort for him (ie he is creating some “relief” and internal rotation, by externally rotating the lower extremity)

 The next three pictures show his anatomically short left leg. Yes there is a large tibial and small femoral component. 

 The final picture (from above) shows his forefoot adductus. Note that how, if you were to bisect the calcaneus and draw a line coming forward, the toes fall medial to a line that would normally be between the second and third metatarsal’s. This is more evident on the right side.  Note the separation of the big toe from the others, right side greater than left. 

Metatarsus adductus deformity is a forefoot which is adducted in the transverse plane with the apex of the deformity at LisFranc’s (tarso-metatarsal) joint. The fifth metatarsal base will be prominent and the lateral border of the foot convex in shape . The medial foot border is concave with a deep vertical skin crease located at the first metatarso cuneiform joint level. The hallux (great toe) may be widely separated from the second digit and the lesser digits will usually be adducted at their bases. ln some cases the abductor hallucis tendon may be palpably taut just proximal to its insertion into the inferomedial aspect of the proximal phalanx (1)

Gait abnormalities seen with this deformity include a decreased progression angle, in toed gait, excessive supination of the feet with low gear push off from the lesser metatarsals. 

 It is interesting to note that along with forefoot adductus, hip dysplasia and internal tibial torsion are common (2) and this patient has some degree of both. 

 His forefoot adductus is developmental and due to the lack of range of motion and lack of internal rotation of the lower extremities, due to the femoral retrotorsion and internal tibial torsion.  If he didn’t adduct the foot he would have to change weight-bearing over his stance phase extremity to propel himself forward. Try internally rotating your foot and standing on one leg and then externally rotating. See what I mean? With the internal rotation it moves your center of gravity over your hip without nearly as much lateral displacement as would be necessary as with external rotation. Try it again with external rotation of the foot; do you see how you are more likely displace the hip further to that side OR lean to that side rather than shift your hip? So, his adductus is out of necessity.

Interesting case! When you have a person with internal torsion and limited hip internal rotation, with an adducted foot, think of forefoot adductus!


1.  Bleck E: Metatarsus adductus: classification and relationship to outcomes of treatment. J Pediatric Orthop 3:2-9,1983.

2. Jacobs J: Metatarsus varus and hip dysplasia. C/inO rth o p 16:203-212, 1960

“Due to the shape of the condyles and the menisci, and the location of ligaments of and muscles acting on the knee, the joint rotation axis is located medially in the knee joint. This also in part explains why the lateral condyle and meniscus are more mobile. Maximum extension of the knee is caused by these factors and the “screw home” mechanism of the cruciate ligaments. The popliteal muscle is connected with the lateral meniscus and the caput fibulae: it locks the knee joint in and unlocks the knee joint out of its maximum extension. Moreover, it plays an important role for proprioception in the knee joint and is known to cause posterolateral knee pain. ”  from:  http://www.anatomy-physiotherapy.com/…/94-test-your-knowled…

“Due to the shape of the condyles and the menisci, and the location of ligaments of and muscles acting on the knee, the joint rotation axis is located medially in the knee joint. This also in part explains why the lateral condyle and meniscus are more mobile. Maximum extension of the knee is caused by these factors and the “screw home” mechanism of the cruciate ligaments. The popliteal muscle is connected with the lateral meniscus and the caput fibulae: it locks the knee joint in and unlocks the knee joint out of its maximum extension. Moreover, it plays an important role for proprioception in the knee joint and is known to cause posterolateral knee pain.

from: http://www.anatomy-physiotherapy.com/…/94-test-your-knowled…

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All that is twisted is not tibial

Last week we posted on measuring tibial torsions (click here to read that post). This week we are posting on measuring the other, often over looked torsion: “femoral torsion”.

Perhaps you have read some of our posts on femoral torsion, particularly this one.

We remember that as hip (thigh) flexion increases, the amount of internal rotation of the femur decreases. This is due largely to the direction of the hip capsule ligaments (ishiofemoral, iliofemoral and pubeofemoral ligaments) “spiraling” from their attachment from the femur to the innominate. This may seem like a subtle detail until you thing about how much hip flexion occurs when we do a squat, and what exactly, is the position of our feet.

We start life with the hips anteverted (ie, the angle of the neck of the femur with the shaft of the femur is > 12 degrees; in fact at birth it is around 35 degrees) and this angle should decrease as we age to about 8-12 degrees). When we stand, the heads of our femurs point anteriorly; it is just a matter of how much (ante version or ante torsion) or how little  (retro version or retro torsion) that is. If you are a precise person and would really like to geek out on the difference between versions or torsions, check out this post here

Measurement is important, because the more retro torsion you have (ie, the smaller the angle is), the less internal rotation of the femur you will have available to you. An important fact if you are planning on squatting. 

An easy way to do this is by approximating the angle of the femoral neck by performing “Craig’s Test”. Have your patient/client/athlete lie prone with their knee flexed 90 degrees. Palpate the greater trochanter (the bump on the side of the hip that the gluteus medius muscles attach to) with one hand while using the other hand to grasp around the ankle and internally and externally rotate the femur (we like to use the right hand on the right trochanter for the patient/client/athletes right leg). Note the position of the tibia when the greater trochanter is parallel to the table (see diagram above from Tom Michaud’s most excellent text: Human Locomotion: the conservative management of gait related disorders, available by clicking here). The smaller the angle, the more retro version/torsion present). 

This is also a convenient way to estimate the amount of internal and external rotation of the femur available. One source states that internal rotation of greater than 70 degrees and external rotation of less than 25 degrees means that there is excessive femoral ante torsion present (1).

Craig’s Test: a convenient way to measure torsions of the femur. Important if you squat! Brought to you by The Gait Guys: Uber Gait Geeks Extrodinaire. 

(1) Staheli LT. Rotational problems in the lower extremity. Orthop Clin North Am, 1987; 18:503-512

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Subtle clues. Helping someone around their anatomy

This patient comes in with low back pain of years duration, helped temporarily with manipulation and activity. Her exam is relatively benign, save for increased lumbar discomfort with axial compression in extension and extension combined with lateral bending. Believe it or not, her abdominal and gluteal muscles (yes, all of them) test strong (no, we couldn’t believe it either; she is extremely regular with her exercises). She has bilateral internal tibial torsion (ITT) and bilateral femoral retro torsion (FRT). She has a decreased progression angle of the feet during walking and the knees do not progress past midlilne. There is a loss of active ankle rocker with gait, but not on the exam table; same with hip extension. 

We know she has a sweater on which obscures things a bit, but this is what you have to work with. Look carefully at her posture from the side. The gravitational line should pass from the earlobe, through the shoulder, greater trochanter and through or just anterior to the lateral malleolus.

In the top picture, can you see how her pelvis is anterior to this line? Do you see how it gets worse when she lifts her hands over her head (yes, they are directly over head)? This can signify many things, but often indicates a lack of flexibility in the lumbar lordosis; in this case, she cannot extend her lumbar spine further so she translates her pelvis forward. Most folks should have enough range of motion from a neutral pelvis and enough stability to allow the movement to occur without a significant change. Go ahead, we know you are curious, go watch yourself do this in a mirror and see if YOU change.

Looking at the bottom left picture, can you pick out that she has a genu valgus? Look at the hips and look at the tibial angle.

In the bottom left picture, did you note the progression angle (or lack of) in her feet? This is a common finding (but NOT pathognomonic) in patients with internal tibial torsion. Notice the forefoot adductus on the right foot?

So what do we think is going on?

  • ITT and FRT both limit the amount of internal rotation of the thigh and lower leg. Remember you NEED 4 degrees of each to walk normally. Most folks have significantly more
  • if you don’t have enough internal rotation of the lower extremity, you will need to “create” it. You can do this by extending the lumbar spine (bottom picture, right) or externally rotating the lower extremity
  • Since her ITT and FRT are bilateral, she flexes the pelvis and nutates the pelvis anteriorly.
  • the lumbar facet joints should only carry 20% of load
  • she is increasing the load and causing facet imbercation resulting in LBP.

What did we do?

  • taught her about neutral pelvic positioning, creating more ROM in the lumbar spine
  • had her consciously alter her progression angle of her foot on strike, to create more available ROM in internal rotation
  • encouraged her to wear neutral shoes
  • worked on helping her to create more ankle rocker and hip extension with active drills and exercise (ie gait rehabilitation); shuffle walks, Texas walk, toes up walking, etc

why didn’t we put her in an orthotic to externally rotate her lower extremity? Because with internal tibial torsion, this would move her knee outside the saggital plane and create a biomechanical conflict at the knee and possibly compromising her meniscus.

Cool case, eh? We thought so. Keep on learning so your brain keeps expanding. If you are not growing your brain, you are shrinking it!

The Gait Guys