Podcast 149: A runner's podcast. Many things running and biomechanics.

Links to find the podcast:
Look for us on iTunes, Google Play, Podbean, PlayerFM and more.
Just Google "the gait guys podcast".

Our Websites:
Find Exclusive content at: https://www.patreon.com/thegaitguys

Our website is all you need to remember. Everything you want, need and wish for is right there on the site.
Interested in our stuff ? Want to buy some of our lectures or our National Shoe Fit program? Click here (thegaitguys.com or thegaitguys.tumblr.com) and you will come to our websites. In the tabs, you will find tabs for STORE, SEMINARS, BOOK etc. We also lecture every 3rd Wednesday of the month on onlineCE.com. We have an extensive catalogued library of our courses there, you can take them any time for a nominal fee (~$20).

Our podcast is on iTunes and just about every other podcast harbor site, just google "the gait guys podcast", you will find us.

Where to find us, the podcast Links:
Apple podcasts:

Google Play:

Other links:

Show notes:

Exercise matters
3 months of exercise training reprogrammed the epigenetics of sperm DNA in healthy young men. Exercise silenced genes in sperm DNA involved in schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, cervical cancer, leukemia, and autism
Epigenomics. 2015 Aug;7(5):717-31. doi: 10.2217/epi.15.29. Epub 2015 Apr 13.
Genome-wide sperm DNA methylation changes after 3 months of exercise training in humans.
Denham J1, O'Brien BJ2, Harvey JT2, Charchar FJ

Footstrike doesnt matter?

Adaptation of Running Biomechanics to Repeated Barefoot Running: A Randomized Controlled Study - Karsten Hollander, Dominik Liebl, Stephanie Meining, Klaus Mattes, Steffen Willwacher, Astrid Zech, 2019
Is There an Economical Running Technique? A Review of Modifiable Biomechanical Factors Affecting Running Economy.
Moore IS. Sports Med. 2016.

Running Technique is an Important Component of Running Economy and Performance.
Folland JP, et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017.

Important to note though than less vertical oscillation is associated with better economy within groups of distance runners, eg ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28263… ; ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26816… compliant tendons but greater leg stiffness is the goal for distance runners, correct?

This video shows how end. runners compliance & economy are achieved by greater vertical excursions vs. sprinters who hit hard, get off the ground fast and burn more energy.

typically have peak vertical forces of 2.5-3.0 times body weight to offset gravity during contact portion of the stride.

Effects of footwear midsole thickness on running biomechanics
Sports Medicine and Biomechanics
Mark H.C. Law, Eric M.F. Choi, Stephanie H.Y. Law, Subrina S.C. Chan , Sonia M.S. Wong, Eric C.K. Ching

Knee muscle forces during walking and running in patellofemoral pain patients and pain-free controls.
Thor F.Besiera, Michael Fredericsona, Garry E.Gold, Gary S.Beaupréd, Scott L.Delp
Journal of Biomechanics Volume 42, Issue 7, 11 May 2009, Pages 898-905

OTS: Over Training Syndrome. Do you have any of these symptoms ? A blog post & 2 podcasts for you on the topic.

photo: courtesy of pixabay.com

photo: courtesy of pixabay.com

Made famous in the beginning, first it was Alberto Salazar.  Now, just in the last decade it has been Anna Frost, Anton Krupicka, Geoff Roes, Kyle Skaggs, even Mike Wolfe. One by one they have fallen, to OTS.  More frighteningly, how many more have fallen to OTS that we never hear about? How many hundreds or thousands walking amongst us have OTS ? If you are a distance or heavy volume training athlete, do not brush off or take lightly what I have complied here today.

OTS, "Overtraining syndrome" is its name, but perhaps a better one would be "Insufficient Recovery Syndrome".  To use the broadest of terms, this is a self-generated, self-perpetuating dis-ease of one's own homeostasis. To be clear, there is a continuum here of multi-system failure, softer less severe forms of OTS. These less damaged states are referred to as Overreaching syndrome (OR). There are two forms of Overreaching syndrome, Functional OR and Nonfunctional OR. Nonfunctional OR shows decreases in performance for weeks to months while OTS being more severe and requiring months to years for recovery despite rest.

Here are 2 podcasts for you on the topic:

Screen Shot 2019-07-03 at 9.58.06 AM.png

Listen to Sweat Science: The Mysterious Syndrome Destroying Top Athletes from Outside Podcast in Podcasts. https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/outside-podcast/id1090500561?i=1000442759399

Listen to Podcast 121: Carrying things, Overtraining Syndrome, Ankle Rocker and more from The Gait Guys Podcast in Podcasts. https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/the-gait-guys-podcast/id559864138?i=1000384117922

Over the past 10 years the best of the best are falling, one by one, victim to "too much".  They have just pushed themselves too much, too far, too long. It is the latest biggest thing in running these days, how far can you run ? Marathons are no longer enough for some, they have to see if 50 miles or 100 miles, or more, are enough and that means running 100-160 miles a week. And what is even more scary, some of these runners are in high school and college, they are still growing kids.

The physiology of these people is failing, truly. Some might suggest they in some respects showing signs of a slow death.  “OTS is one of the scariest things I’ve ever seen in my 30 plus years of working with athletes,” says David Nieman, former vice president of the American College of Sports Medicine. “To watch someone go from that degree of proficiency to a shell of their former self is unbelievably painful and frustrating.” - Meaghen Brown Jun 12, 2015.  Outside online. 

The first reference in which OTS was suggested was by a researcher and athlete named Robert Tait McKenzie.  In his 1909 book, Exercise in Education and Medicine, he mentioned a “slow poisoning of the nervous system which could last weeks or even months.” Then in 1985 South African physiologist professor Timothy Noakes discussed what appears to be the same condition in "The Lore of Running". Runners examined by Noakes had so over exerted themselves that both mind and body were failing.

OTS is truly a deeper problem. This is an immune, inflammatory, neurologic and psychological problem as best as anyone can tell.  In essence it seems the body is slowly dying. The body's parasympathetic nervous system, the system that counteracts the ramping up of the sympathetic nervous system, fails to properly respond to bring the systems back into balance. This means that many of the physiologic responses to activity fail to properly return to baseline. This means that blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, digestion, adrenal and hormonal rhythms amongst many other things go awry. Even other important things begin to decline, things like normal restful sleep, sometimes even insomnia, libido decline, metabolism dysfunction, appetite problems and even heart rate recovery and recurrent colds and viral infections.  We are talking about multi-system failure in these people, and this is serious business. The problem is, these athletes do not listen to the signals until it is too late and they are in full blown multi-system decline or failure. 

Here is likely an incomplete list of things that might be slowing showing up, softly, one by one as multi-system failure ramps up:

- anemia
- chronic dehydration
- increased resting heart rate
- breathing changes
- digestive troubles , bowel troubles (ie. runners diarrhea)
- endocrine problems: adrenal and hormonal shifts
- insomnia and sleeplessness
- blood pressure changes
- libido changes
- metabolism and appetite changes
- recurrent colds and viral infections
- generalized fatigue
- muscle soreness
- recurrent headaches
- inability to relax, listlessness
- swelling of lymph glands
- arrhythmias
- depression (neurotransmitter dysfunction)

There is a way out of OTS. But, one has to wrap their head around the fact that one's goals and mental drive have pushed them to this point. This is one's own fault and they will have to take some hard advice and make some tough decisions, decisions they do not want to make, but ultimately will have no choice but to make. That means changing those goals and habits, otherwise this could get real serious real fast. And wrapping one's head around the toughest part will be the most painful part for most, many months of rest, sometimes a year or more, to fully recover if one hasn't done too much irreparable damage to begin with.  Of course, the immediate course of action is to see a doctor. Hopefully, a doctor who is familiar with elite athletes and one that can rule out any other more serious immediate health concerns and disease processes that can mimic OTS and OR syndromes.

As with solving most problems, one has to first start to realize one is heading towards a problem, and accept responsibility. In this case, over training and under recovering.  One must look at their habits, and the subsequent outcomes, and see if there are signs of impending problems and if so be willing to make behavioral changes. This is a hard thing for endurance athletes, because it is asking them to look at enjoyable, admittedly addictive, endeavors. Endeavors that have always improved many facets of their life, yet ones that have a double edged-sword nature to them which can very quickly chop down all the hard work that has been put in. Ultimately, the answer is balance, balance in all aspects of one's life. But, who is truly good with balance ? Very few of us I am afraid.

Dr. Shawn Allen, one of the gait guys


Running on Empty By: Meaghen Brown Jun 12, 2015.  Outside online. 

Sports Health. 2012 Mar; 4(2): 128–138.Overtraining Syndrome. A Practical Guide
Jeffrey B. Kreher, MD†* and Jennifer B. Schwartz, MD‡

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013 Jan;45(1):186-205. Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the overtraining syndrome: joint consensus statement of the European College of Sport Science and the American College of Sports Medicine.
Meeusen R, Duclos M, Foster C, Fry A, Gleeson M, Nieman D, Raglin J, Rietjens G, Steinacker J, Urhausen A; European College of Sport Science; American College of Sports Medicine.

Open Access J Sports Med. 2016; 7: 115–122. Published online 2016 Sep 8.  Diagnosis and prevention of overtraining syndrome: an opinion on education strategies. Jeffrey B Kreher

Overtraining, Exercise, and Adrenal Insufficiency
KA Brooks, JG Carter
J Nov Physiother. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2013 May 9.
Published in final edited form as: J Nov Physiother. 2013 Feb 16; 3(125): 11717

Related citations:

Podcast 127: Tendinopathies, Tendon Pain & more.

Key Tagwords:

neuroscience, hip pain, tendonopathy, DNA, running, injuries, achilles, tendonitis, gait, shoecue

Show Links:




Our Websites:


summitchiroandrehab.com   doctorallen.co     shawnallen.net

Our website is all you need to remember. Everything you want, need and wish for is right there on the site.
Interested in our stuff ? Want to buy some of our lectures or our National Shoe Fit program? Click here (thegaitguys.com or thegaitguys.tumblr.com) and you will come to our websites. In the tabs, you will find tabs for STORE, SEMINARS, BOOK etc. We also lecture every 3rd Wednesday of the month on onlineCE.com. We have an extensive catalogued library of our courses there, you can take them any time for a nominal fee (~$20).
Our podcast is on iTunes, Soundcloud, and just about every other podcast harbor site, just google "the gait guys podcast", you will find us.
Show Notes:

New neuron science

Exercise strengthens you DNA

Development of overuse tendinopathy: A new descriptive model for the initiation of tendon damage during cyclic loading
Tyler W. Herod, Samuel P. Veres

The neuromechanical adaptations to Achilles tendinosis.
J Physiol. 2015 Aug 1;593(15):3373-87. doi: 10.1113/JP270220. Epub 2015 Jun 30.
Chang YJ1, Kulig K1.

Hip muscle strength is decreased in middle-aged recreational male athletes with midportion Achillestendinopathy: A cross-sectional study.
Phys Ther Sport. 2017 May;25:55-61. doi: 10.1016/j.ptsp.2016.09.008. Epub 2016 Sep 13.
Habets B1, Smits HW2, Backx FJG3, van Cingel REH4, Huisstede BMA5.

Changes of gait parameters and lower limb dynamics in recreational runners with achilles tendinopathy. Kim S1, Yu J2.
J Sports Sci Med. 2015 May 8;14(2):284-9. eCollection 2015 Jun.

Vibrations and strides

ShoeCue product:

RULES of tendonopathies:

Roger Enoka


Podcast 111b: Somnambulism. Locomoting when you are still asleep.

Podcast 111b: Sonambulism. Locomoting when you are still asleep. Ultramarathoners know about this one to a degree. Here is what you need to know. Do you ever wonder why you cannot sleep that first night in a new place, like a hotel ? We have answers.



Interested in our stuff ? Want to buy some of our lectures or our National Shoe Fit program? Click here (thegaitguys.com or thegaitguys.tumblr.com) and you will come to our website and blog. In the tabs, you will find tabs for STORE, SEMINARS, BOOK etc. We also lecture every 3rd Wednesday of the month on onlineCE.com. We have an extensive catalogued library of our courses there, you can take them any time for a nominal fee (~$20).

Podcast 111: Gait, Movement, & the Messengers

Great open clinical discussions today on things we see in the clinic. Hope you will join us on this clinical journey today.
Interested in our stuff ? Want to buy some of our lectures or our National Shoe Fit program? Click here (thegaitguys.tumblr.com) and you will come to our blog. In the left tab, you will find tabs for STORE, SEMINARS, BOOK etc. We also lecture every 3rd Wednesday of the month on onlineCE.com. We have an extensive catalogued library of our courses there, you can take them any time for a nominal fee (~$20).
Show notes:

Treadmill Biomechanics


Shoes alter the spring-like function of the human foot during running
Luke A. Kelly, Glen A. Lichtwark, Dominic J. Farris, Andrew Cresswell

Lower limb alignment characteristics are not associated with running injuries in runners:…

Gait modification strategies in trunk over right stance phase in patients with right anterior cruciate ligament deficiency.
Shi D   Gait Posture. 2016 May;46:63-8. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2016.02.016. Epub 2016 Mar 2.

Check out our latest Podcast episode!

Podcast 96: Minimalism Shoes, Toe Trauma, Meniscal Impingement.

The Minimalist Shoe Index, Pincer toe nails, toe problems, anteromeniscofemoral impingement syndrome and much more on today’s show !

A. Link to our server: http://traffic.libsyn.com/thegaitguys/pod_96f.mp3

Direct Download:  http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-96

Other Gait Guys stuff

B. iTunes link:
C. Gait Guys online /download store (National Shoe Fit Certification & more !)
D. other web based Gait Guys lectures:
Monthly lectures at : www.onlinece.com type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen, ”Biomechanics”

-Our Book: Pedographs and Gait Analysis and Clinical Case Studies
Electronic copies available here:


-Barnes and Noble / Nook Reader:


-Hardcopy available from our publisher:

Show notes:

1. New Cameras In Japan Can Detect Drunks At Train Stations

2. It takes a lot of nerve: Scientists make cells to aid peripheral nerve repair
-Scientists at the University of Newcastle, UK, have used a combination of small molecules to turn cells isolated from human skin into Schwann cells

3. The Minimalist Shoe Definition study


A consensus definition and rating scale for minimalist shoes
Jean-Francois Esculier123, Blaise Dubois13, Clermont E. Dionne14, Jean Leblond2 andJean-Sébastien Roy12* http://www.jfootankleres.com/content/8/1/42

modified Delphi study, 42 experts from 11 countries



The following definition of minimalist shoes was agreed upon by 95 % of participants: “Footwear providing minimal interference with the natural movement of the foot due to its high flexibility, low heel to toe drop, weight and stack height, and the absence of motion control and stability devices”. Characteristics to be included in MI were weight, flexibility, heel to toe drop, stack height and motion control/stability devices, each subscale carrying equal weighing (20 %) on final score.

4. CASE:
Ivo: broken toe, prioprioception
this: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2245598
and this http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19955289

5. CASE: anterior meniscofemoral impingment syndrome


6. Pincer Toe nails:


Podcast 91: Gait, Vision & some truths about leg length discrepancies

Show sponsors:

A. Link to our server:

Direct Download:

Other Gait Guys stuff

B. iTunes link:

C. Gait Guys online /download store (National Shoe Fit Certification and more !) :

D. other web based Gait Guys lectures:
Monthly lectures at : www.onlinece.com   type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen,  ”Biomechanics”

Our Book: Pedographs and Gait Analysis and Clinical Case Studies

electronic copies available here:



Barnes and Noble / Nook Reader:



Hardcopy available from our publisher:


Show notes:

Gait and vision: Gaze Fixation
What’s Up With That: Birds Bob Their Heads When They Walk
Shod vs unshod
Short leg talk:
11 strategies to negotiate around a leg length discrepancy

From a Reader:

Dear Gait Guys, Dr. Shawn and Dr. Ivo,  I was referred to this post of yours on hip IR…http://thegaitguys.tumblr.com/post/14262793786/gait-problem-the-solitary-externally-rotated   I am impressed by the level of details of your understanding of the gait and biomechanics. Although I am still trying to understand all of your points in this post, I would like to ask you:  What if my IR is limited due to a structural issue? The acetabular retroversion of the right hip in my case. 

I.e. if I am structurally unable to rotate the hip internally.
What will happen? 
What would be a solution to the problem in that case? 

Single-leg drop landing movement strategies 6 months following first-time acute lateral ankle sprain injury - Doherty - 2014 - Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports

Hey Gait Guys,

I understand that 1st MP Joint dorsiflexion, ankle rocker, and hip extension are 3 key factors for moving in the sagittal plane from your blog and podcasts so far. I really love how you guys drill in our heads to increase anterior strength to increase posterior length to further ankle rocker. I’ve seen the shuffle gait and was curious if you had a good hip extension exercise to really activate the posterior hip extensors and increase anterior length. 

Podcast 88: interpreting Shoe Wear patterns & Running Surface Effects

Show sponsors:

Plus: Biometrics in Pro Sports, Epigenetics and How Exercise changes our DNA, Hip Dysplasia,, Pavlik harnesses.

We hope you find today’s show helpful. Remember, we don’t know everything, and we do not expect everyone else to know everything either. We are just bringing our logic and knowledge and hopefully truth to the web … . . Please, Correct us when we are sharing inaccuracies, as we try to do the same. There is alot of misguided info on the web and in the wrong hands, people can get hurt … . we feel we are doing our part to carve a safe path. But, when we go astray, please our dear brethren……call us out on it ! We insist. -Shawn and Ivo

Other Gait Guys stuff

Download links:

A. http://traffic.libsyn.com/thegaitguys/pod_88_solid.mp3

B. http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-88

iTunes link:

Gait Guys online /download store (National Shoe Fit Certification and more !) :

other web based Gait Guys lectures:
Monthly lectures at : www.onlinece.com   type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen,  ”Biomechanics”

Show notes:

New biometric tests invade the NBA

How Exercise Changes Our DNA

An integrative analysis reveals coordinated reprogramming of the epigenome and the transcriptome in human skeletal muscle after training. Lindholm ME
Epigenetics. 2014 Dec 7:0. [Epub ahead of print]

Hip Dysplasia

Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics:
January 2015 - Volume 35 - Issue 1 - p 57-61
Back-carrying Infants to Prevent Developmental Hip Dysplasia and its Sequelae: Is a New Public Health Initiative Needed? Graham, Simon M.

Plus: Pavlik harness

Does Correct Head Positioning Make You Run Faster?http://runnersconnect.net/running-injury-prevention/running-form-proper-head-position/

Running surfaces

How to Read and Interpret the Wear Pattern on Your Running Shoes

Podcast 87: Podcast 87: The Kenyan's Running Brain & "The" Anterior Compartment.

Plus, Some unknown facts about going minimalism and barefoot. We POUND anterior compartment strength today gang ! Hope you enjoy !

Show sponsors:

A. Link to our server: 

Direct Download: 

Other Gait Guys stuff

B. iTunes link:

C. Gait Guys online /download store (National Shoe Fit Certification and more !) :

D. other web based Gait Guys lectures:
Monthly lectures at : www.onlinece.com   type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen,  ”Biomechanics”

Show notes:

On high heels and short muscles: A multiscale model for sarcomere loss in the gastrocnemius muscle


The Brain Needs Oxygen

Maintained cerebral oxygenation during maximal self-paced exercise in elite Kenyan runners.

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2014 Nov 20:jap.00909.2014. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00909.2014. [Epub ahead of print]

The texting lane in China

Dialogue on endurance training,
NeuroRehabilitation. 2006;21(1):43-50. 

Effects of dorsiflexor endurance exercises on foot drop secondary to multiple sclerosis.  Mount J1, Dacko S.

APOS Therapy
we were asked out opinion on this

Foot instrinsic dialogue
Motor Control. 2014 Jul 15. [Epub ahead of print]

Quantifying the Contributions of a Flexor Digitorum Brevis Muscle on Postural Stability.
Okai LA1, Kohn AF.

There are many factors in adults that impair gait. It is not all biomechanical. This is part of our ongoing dialogue on the aging population and why gait impairments and falls are so prevalent.
Acta Bioeng Biomech. 2014;16(1):3-9.
Differences in gait pattern between the elderly and the young during level walking under low illumination.
Choi JS, Kang DW, Shin YH, Tack GR.

Podcast 86: The Best of The Gait Guys Podcast: Part 1

Show sponsors:


A. Link to our server: 


Direct Download: 


Other Gait Guys stuff

B. iTunes link:


C. Gait Guys online /download store (National Shoe Fit Certification and more !) :


D. other web based Gait Guys lectures:

Monthly lectures at : www.onlinece.com   type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen,  ”Biomechanics”

Podcast 36: Heel lift lies, the Exercise Drug & Malcolm Gladwell's 10,000 hours.


iTunes link:


Gait Guys online /download store:


other web based Gait Guys lectures:

www.onlinece.com   type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen  Biomechanics

Today’s show notes:

Neuroscience piece:

1. Health Scanner Scanadu Scout: the future of medical info gathering ?

2. The Exercise Drug:


3. FB reader sent us a message:

- am posting this to see if I can get a little bit of help from the best professionals in the area (you). 
I have read some of the information on your site and I think I have quite a problem on my right foot. It happens that the medial part of the foot tripod does not touches the floor at all and I have lack of support in that zone. So it seems like my forefoot is varus. I have also noticed that when I am standing it looks like my rear foot is valgus. So, I can’t really compensate this problem because if the forefoot is varus and I try to put it neutral, the rear foot gets even more valgus, and if it I try to put the rear foot neutral, the forefoot gets even more varus and my big toe does not touch any part of the floor. Can you please help me? I do not know what to do and I am a little bit desperate because nobody I went to could help me. You are probably my last hope. I know I can correct this and I have the will and dedication to pull it off. I bet there are some exercises I can do but I do not really know which at all. 
Thanks in advance. -Jorge
4. Another TUMBLR reader asks question about
Guys what are the possible muscular causes of genu varum during initial swing?
5. Another off tumblr:  Anything  you can talk about on this topic ?
How does running in low-to-no light conditions effect your gait/running/injuries/etc?
6. Topic: step  width

Changing step width alters lower extremity biomechanics during running

7.  heel lift vs. sole lift
why and when would you use only a heel lift…..unilaterally ?
8. National Shoe Fit program: 
Link: http://store.payloadz.com/results/results.aspx?m=80204
9. Questions from a field doc:
Hey guys,
 I have heard you guys say many times that many people who choose to venture into minimalistic footwear have not “earned their right" to do such without increasing their risk for problems.  I was wondering if you could explain what parameters you use to determine if and when they are ready.  
10. Shoes: does pronation matter
11. Shoes #2:
12. Malcolm Gladwell debate, 10,000 hours

Podcast 35: Future-tech of shoe fit, Case studies & technology.

Podcast 35: Future-tech of shoe fit, Case studies & technology.
podcast link:


iTunes link:


Gait Guys online /download store:


other web based Gait Guys lectures:

www.onlinece.com   type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen  Biomechanics

Today’s show notes:

Neuroscience piece:
1- Wearable computers will be inside us
2- First ever head transplants are possible and not far off.

3- 3D printed casts for shoe fit. The new future ?

4- FB reader sent us a message:
-Hi Gait Guys,

I have anterior pelvic tilt and overpronation of the right foot.

at gait, LEFT foot does toe off properly and straight.
However, RIGHT foot moves towards my center at toe off. It just sort of caves in & moves in as well.

I managed to really reduce that(i think) from massages and strengthening glutes etc but I would just like to know what causes that so I know what to target.

Once again, congratulations on your work. Not only has it not been done before over the whole internet it is excellent.

-a tormented athlete with postural difficulties
5- Another FB reader asks question about heel spurs, plantar fascitis, ankle biomechanics
6- Questions from a field doc:
Hey guys,
I have a couple questions for you that you could possibly use or you could simply answer them via email. 
1)  Ivo, in one of your videos on muscle function you talk about muscle inhibition.  I always thought the CNS simply chooses not to recruit all of the motor units in a muscle or chain of muscles to protect from injury, compensate, etc.  You mentioned in your video the CNS somehow recognizes the spindles in these motor units are already “turned on” so they will not activate.  I’m not sure I have this correct but I was hoping you could elaborate on this confusing but interesting neurological phenomenon.
7- Patient case yesterday:
Runner comes in and says “i keep landing on the outside of my left foot when i run, it is there a little when i walk, but more prominent when i run. Everywhere i read the armchair experts are saying to just let foot strike happen naturally.  Do i leave this alone ? Oh, and my left hip is always tight.”

Season 1: Podcast 8 of the Gait Guys Experience Now available!

You know you want it! Here it is:

You can check it out on Libsyn, by clicking here:

This link will get you a nicely laid out “show notes” and pod player.

This one will get you to the show player of ALL of our podcasts.

Here are the show liner notes:

1-   neuroscience story

What do dolphins and sleep walking have in common?
Do ultra marathoners sleep while they run ?
Join us for the podcast neuroscience introduction.

2- More lectures available  on www.onlineCE.com 13 hours of courses there !  Go there and look up our lectures

3- OFF TOPIC Discussion:
Hi gents ! What is with the wide tripod abducted legs in obese folks >?
So many of them supinate and have a wide tripod…….
thanks alot
Julio C, in Sao Palo Brazil !

4- Off Topic:   Sole lifts or heel lifts ? Which should you use and why ? And When ?
5- EMAIL Question:
I saw your blog and one of your youtube videos and thought I would mail in a gait question! I appreciate any input or information you have about this. I was wondering about people that walk with their foot in the abducted position - why is this and what are the implications for such a gait? I know some people with flat feet have that tendency but I don’t have that and walk at baseline with my foot abducted. I took note of this since I’ve developed some hip pain recently and noticed that when I make a conscious effort to walk with my feet straight it actually feels abnormal (more comfortable and natural with the feet abducted). Why is this? Any input into this puzzle would be appreciated. 
Thanks much!  -Sheeva

Guys, love you, love your show
you guys need to do a stand up routine at a club……..maybe host Saturday Night Live !  Maybe pair  you up with Justin Timberlake !
Anyhow…….enough ego stroking…….
What is your take on the biomechanical implications of a short quadriceps muscle in gait ?

7- Pedographs or software ???? what is our take ?

Hi Fellas
Can you talk a bit more about the proprisensory system in gait ?
You talked about it several blog posts but i would love to hear you expand upon it. 

 Is it true that walking in flip flops is bad for you?  I’ve heard a lot of “experts” say it will cause your arches to fall.  Thanks! - Norma

The Gait Guys Podcast #7: S1E7

This one will get you to the show player of all of our podcasts.

And this link will get you a nicely laid out “show notes”.

Show Notes: The Gait Guys Podcast, Season 1, Episode 6

1- CPR:  neurscience story

Correctly performed CPR  triples survival rates. The UK Resuscitation Council recommends that the chest should be compressed by 5-6 cm and at a rate of 100-120 compressions per minute. A study published in 2009 showed that using a familiar song as an AID did increase the number of people getting the right rate. But there was a drop in those hitting the correct depth.
2. - more lectures available  on www.onlineCE.com 13 hours of courses there !  Go there and look up our lectures


off our FB page, from Lisa

I’m so hoping you can help me out with a patient. He is a military runner (Army) who hope to compete his first full Tri this year. In a nutshell: He has been plagued with peroneus Longus pain on his slightly longer side with running. This now occurs only with running in the combat boots and he uses a Nike Free Boot. I have checked all shoes for manufacturer defects.
Barefoot running, ankle rocker exercises, Glu. med strengthening for cross-over gait have helped his out of boot running experience, but he is frustrated by calf pain in the boots and so am I. I do have a video gait barefoot that I can send you. We have discussed the problem of trying to be a midfoot striker in a boot.
He does the waddle gait w/ theraband, squats with toes up, shuffle gait and moonwalk backwards. As far as i know, the military has banned VFFs for training and maybe all minimalist shoes. Scratching head…
4. Have you ever wondered why people who walk together quickly synchronize their gaits ?

What is thought to happen is that one partner dominates the lead in the gait, just as in dancing, one person is the leader and the other is the follower. The lead partner’s lower limbs determine the movement of their arms, which in turn when holding hands, sets the arm movement pattern in the partner then determining the leg swing and stance phases. Thus, synchrony is achieved. 

References used:
J Neuroengineering Rehabil. 2007; 4: 28. The sensory feedback mechanisms enabling couples to walk synchronously. An initial investigation.  Ari Z Zivotofsky and Jeffrey M Hausdorff  Published online 2007 August 8. doi:  10.1186/1743-0003-4-28

Hum Mov Sci. 2012 Jun 22. [Epub ahead of print] Modality-specific communication enabling gait synchronization during over-ground side-by-side walking. Zivotofsky AZ, Gruendlinger L, Hausdorff JM.Gonda Brain Research Center, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel.

5 - Payloadz.com
-pedographs on FB and blog
LEMINGS new shoe line www.lemingfootwear.com

The gait guys,
My name is Nathaniel and i am e-mailing from the UK having found you through my endless googling of my injury. I  was hoping you might be able to give me a helping hand.
  • So a bit of background, i am a 28 year old very keen amateur (2.23 marathon) who has a 5 year history of heavy run training (80-120 miles per week) having been a triathlete prior to that and a swimmer from the age of 8. I had no injury history prior to this except, perhaps crucially, in 2006 i twisted my right ankle into supination, several times over the course of 2-4 months, I never had to stop running for more than a day or two at this time but it was very swollen and for at least 6 months was very unstable, but i ran through it.
  • so current injury is a 2.5 years of vague right posterolateral gluteal pain which is constantly there but progresses with running to a spasm, over the area i believe to be the glute medius and some mild adductor pain on the same right hand . . i can usually get through easy mileage but the pain is always there and speed work/racing is a no no. I had bilateral sports hernia surgery on the 3rd january in the belief that it would cure the problem , it helped and certainly reduced the abdominal/adductor aspect but i still cant race and I know think the sports hernias were a product of the problem and not the problems route cause.
  • I have no problems on the left. my right foot are some callouses on the right on the medial aspect of the arch.just proximal to the 1st MTP
  • the navicular is much more prominent on the right.
    the foot wear pattern on the right shoe is different, there appears to be a far heavier heel strike on the right lateral side, greater wear under where the right 1st MTP joint would be.
  • on the left there is far more “toe off” wear on the shoe after periods of inactivity it feels as though the foot needs to warm up before it will pronate sufficiently to allow toe off. like im walking on the outside of the foot.
  • the right hip has more internal rotation and less external rotation than the left,
  • flexion and extension at the hip are stiff but within i believe normal limits.
  • the hallux tests i have found online dont appear to show any restricton although i was initially cheating on the right with foot pronation.
  •  the podiatrist said I had bilateral forefoot varus with it being worse on the right. he noted my prominent naviculars, he initially thought I had accesory bones but confirmed that i did not. he said that on the right (my bad leg) had a restriction/fixed at the midtarsal joint so the increased required pronation to get the first ray down had to come from sub-talar pronation.
  • onto the walking pressure pad analysis,
-on the right (bad leg) i had alot of lateral edge mid foot loading, the right foot was much more externally rotated than the left.
-on my left leg the peak force/pressure was very unusally right under the tip if the hallux 
-on the right the forces were much less throught the heel strike, stance, and push off phase

onto the video analysis.
when you slow down my gait the left (my good, pain free leg) looks incredibly odd.
on the “swing through” phase (so when my right was on the floor) my left knee points laterally and appears to circumduct through rather than progress straight in the saggital (?) plane. as the left foot approached foot strike is looks much more supinated than the right.
 -this is in contrast to my right (painful leg) which swung though perfectly in the saggital plane,
-no movement laterally in the frontal plane, no cicumduction, approached foot strike with much less supination and just looked mor normal.
The podiatrist thinks all my problems are coming from my left foot, despite that being my good leg. so he gave me a knocked up orthotic to use in my left shoe which basically pushes me more into supination at the arch and calcaneus, nothing in the forefoot. he thought there was nothing to do in the right foot.he told me to try it for 6 weeks and if it worked he would prepare a more robust permanent version.
This is where my questions came from the things I have learnt from the gaitguys, Basically i questioned why if I have a forefoot varus is there nothing in the forefoot to bring the ground up to the first ray. and help attenuate the subtalar pronation on the right and mid tarsal/subtalar joint on the left. he said through years of experience, which is fair enough of an answer as I dont have any experience or qualifications of my own!
I enjoyed the assessment and I thought it was enlightening but cant help but feel he mar be very good at detecting/ diagnosing but im not convinced that his remedy is the way forward.
Despite the abberent movements of the left leg Im still convinced the right is the problem and what i see in the left in swing though is a product of poor mechanics of the right foot when its on the floor.
Thanks again. Nathaniel , United Kingdom

The Gait Guys Podcast #6 : S1E6

The Gait Guys Podcast #6 : S1E6

This one will get you to the show player of all of our podcasts.

And this link will get you a nicely laid out “show notes”.

Show Notes: The Gait Guys Podcast, Season 1, Episode 6

1-  Cannabinoids and the Runners High


Endurance athletes sometimes say they’re “addicted” to exercise. In fact, scientists have shown that rhythmic, continuous exercise — aerobic exercise — can in fact produce narcoticlike chemicals in the body.

2-  more lectures available  on www.onlineCE.com   Go there and look up our lectures. New www.PAYLOADZ.COM lectures.
3- A lot of people cycle either as a less stress option to running or in conjunction with it (tri-athletes). No biomechanics-minded gait gurus are analyzing cycling posture, gait and cadence and putting it out there for us all to learn from. What can you teach us gait gurus?
Ben, A lifelong student

4-   Cuboid Syndrome
Hi Gait Guys,I’m doing research on cuboid syndrome and wanted to know your thoughts on addressing the strength of the arch and how it might influence recovery.  Also, what impact would retraining/changing  the reflexive action of the of the peroneus longus may have on reducing the reoccurrence  of cuboid syndrome.  Any thoughts or feedback would be very helpful.
Thank you,Chase in Mooresville, NC

5- Part 2 on the LISA foot case , the suspect neuroma, seroma, tarsal tunnel case. We discussed her initial case in podcast 5
 DVDs , website, email,

6- Shoe talk / product talk

 Hi - I have been watching your videos for 2 years and find them very informative.  Here’s my problem:
I have had foot/ankle pain for more than 3 years.  The pain is traveling up/down my kinetic chain on the left side.  I’ve been diagnosed with:

        Achilles Tendinopathy
        Ankle instability
        Possible Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
        Gluteal Medial Tendinopathy

I’ve seen 11 foot/ankle specialists (the BEST in Philadelphia).  I’ve seen orthopedic doctors for my glute problem.   I’ve seen 2 physiatrists to determine if this is a problem with my back.  I’ve had 4 surgical procedures on my ankle.  Had a tenotomy on my glute med tendon.  Gone thru 5 rounds of physical therapy for my foot/ankle.  4 months of therapy for my glute med tendinopathy.  I have 5 pairs of custom orthotics; 1 UCBL; 1 Arizona AFO.  Countless OTC devices.

hope you will join us for  Lorraine’s case.

8- Discussion on who controls individual cell control/coordination (and email from Jesse in Luxembourg). We dicuss several things including the effects of neuropepties.

The Gait Guys Podcast #4: S1E4

This one will get you to the show player of all of our podcasts.

And this link will get you a nicely laid out “show notes”.

1. Our lectures are available  on www.onlineCE.com   Go there and look up our lectures


This week, Correct Toes.  Join us for a nice discussion on the merits and possible limitations of the Correct Toes product.

Dear Gait Guys,
For almost a year, I have had pain at and around the second metatarsal head of my left foot. When the pain started, I visited a podiatrist who diagnosed capsulitis, tendonitis, and metatarsalgia and prescribed a cortisone injection, a metatarsal pad, and a rubber bar glued to the outsole of my shoe (to redistribute the weight off the metatarsals). While the pain and swelling improved initially, it has never dissipated completely or returned to pre-injury levels. (I say ‘injury’ but I do not remember any trauma. I had mowed the lawn earlier in the day before the pain started.)
Kevin , Winston-Salem, NC
Join us today for a dialogue on this great case.

Hi! Do you have a DVD that shows all the exercises to restore proper ankle rocker, and demonstrating what exercises to use to correct the different compensations you might observe. Where would I be able to order such a DVD or DVDs. Thank you for your time!- Gordon
Join us today for a dialogue on this topic.
 5. REVIEW of our favorite BLOG POST OF THE WEEK:The immature DEVELOPING system is very much like a mature system that is REGRESSING. We can learn a lot about gait from watching our children walk. An immature nervous system is very similar to one which is compensating meaning cheating around a more proper and desirable movement pattern; we often resort to a more primitive state when challenges beyond our ability are presented. This is very common when we lose some aspect of proprioception, particularly from some peripheral joint or muscle, which in turn, leads to a loss of cerebellar input (and thus cerebellar function). Remember, the cerebellum is a temporal pattern generating center so a loss of cerebellar sensory input leads to poor pattern generation output. Watch this clip several times and then try and note each of the following: …
 Join us today for a dialogue on this great case.


Invisible gorilla story
Experiment at Harvard University several years ago, we found that half of the people who watched the video and counted the passes missed the gorilla. It was as though the gorilla was invisible.
This experiment reveals two things: that we are missing a lot of what goes on around us, and that we have no idea that we are missing so much. To our surprise, it has become one of the best-known experiments in psychology.
Summary:  * if you havent trained yourself and your brain to know about all of the gait and movement problems that can present in a client……. you wont see them at all.  Ingorance is bliss ! 
Join us today for a dialogue on this great case. 


Hi Guys,
I’ve been watching your videos and attempting to correct issues with
my gait.  Thanks to your videos and blog, I’ve learned that the
cross-over gait is horribly wrong and inefficient and I’ve been
working to correct that. My email to you today is about muscle tightness.  I watched this video
but would like more information on how to correct my tightness. 
Join us today for a dialogue on this great case.

Thanks for your in depth information and your clarity.
I have learned so much from your posts, the videos are priceless!
Hip internal rotation assessment, position of the client in supine with leg staight, you mention it is more true to a standing position.
I have learned to check hip external and internal rotation when client in supine and hip at 90 degrees, holding at the foot and knee rotate tibia out brining the Joint in for an internal rotation,rotate tibia in to check joint for external rotation, combined rotation optimally should be 70 to 90 degrees, resilient end feel, pain free.
How do you assess the joint itself ? What do you think about placing hip joint at 90 degrees flexion ?

Podcast #2: The Gait Guys Podcast Experience


PODCAST #2: Topic list and Listener Questions:


Nantel J, Brochu M, Prince F    Locomotor strategies in obese and non obese children  Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Oct;14(10):1789-94.

We are constantly talking about abnormal gluteal firing patterns. Compensatory patterns can begin in childhood.  “This led obese children to significantly decrease the mechanical work done by the hip extensors during weight acceptance and significantly increase the mechanical work done by the hip flexors compared with non-obese children.”
Compensation patterns start early. Central pattern generators (CPG’s) for locomotion most likely exist in the lower thoracic or lumbar cord and are adaptable to sensory input. They receive input from the brainstem (where there are many relay nuclei, like the inferior olive) and the environment to keep the network regulated. Like any neural network, repetition of a particular pathway leads to axon collateralization and neural learning (much like beating a path from walking through a field), with facilitation (or preferential use) of that pathway in future similar experiences.
We have alot more to say about this, tune into the podcast !

2. On the blog you have seen a recent weekly topic trend on foot types. We are preparing you for the release of our 3 part DVD program to help you all. We have a physicians program we are working on as well.
Understanding where these foot type issues origninated from will help you get better at this game.


Hi Guys:
Now that i have been following your work on the web for a year i have become very aware of a small twist in the rear foot of many of my runners.  It occurs immediately at heel rise/heel lift when the run. I can even see it when they walk.  Instead of the heel rising purely off the ground progressing nicely to the forefoot loading phase it is as if they spin on the ball of the foot turning it out and thus forcing the heel to spin inwards/medially.  I have heard you loosely call this “putting out a cigarette butt” foot motion which is a great visual descriptor. 
My question……… what insight do you have on this problem ? My runners whom i draw their attention to it suddenly realize it.  Any suggestions ? I know it is not normal, i know it is wasting economy and time which is not good for any runner and i know most people do it. I walk through the malls and see it everywhere.  Maybe it is normal ? 

4. Topic: We talk about S. E. S. today. Developing Skill, Endurance, Strength.  And why they must occur in this order.

 This one comes from Lisa in Fresno, California
 I am desperately need the help of a gait expert.   A little over a year ago I started an exercise program and began walking on the treadmill.  Within a month I had developed what I thought was plantar fasciitis.  I thought it might go away on its own, but it didn’t.  By June I had consulted a podiatrist.  He tried rest strapping and a couple steroid injections but nothing helped.  I have custom made orthotics, but wearing them was torture and … .
I’ve been going to physio therapists for a while with lower back and posture problems, which I now think are related to how I walk (duck footed). So far the only thing I have really got from this would be a nice massage.
What kind of professional or practioner should I see about correcting issues like this?
Thanks very much, MIKE

Hello Gait Guys,
In the past, I have sprained my left ankle in which has led me to think that this is the cause for me having a flat foot.
This in turn has led me to having problems around the knee and the hip.
Are there any exercises I can do to improve my medial arch? 
If there are videos that you are selling to teach how to deal with this problem, could you link me to it?
Sincerely, Zachary
8. Today we discuss the youtube video: 

The foot tripod: the importance of the toe extensors in raising the arch.Also read our blog post ( February 16th, 2012 blog post for more).

Type these words into the seach box on YOUTUBE:  "gait guys foot tripod"


Hi There,

My name is Damien and i am writing you from Ireland. I’ve watched a lot of your videos online on YouTube. They are amazing. Congratulations on such a great and informative service. It’s so refreshing seeing people want to diagnose and fix feet rather than putting insoles or arch supports in place.

 Reason for Writing·         The reason I’m writing is that I have a problem with my left foot. Specifically, I have a corn under the outside ball of my left foot (basically about 1 inch back from my baby toe). I had the corn removed twice in the last 4 months, but the area is still pretty sore when I run/cycl

·         I seem to have very poor control of my toes also (based on your video Foot Hallux - Big Toe & Extensors). See pictures above of my toes fully flexed up. I guess I’m getting up about 20 to 30 degrees, whereas in your video you are getting up about 70 or 80 degrees. So I can barely get the long extensor up, and I can’t really get to the short extensor at all.

·         I’m not sure if I suffer from ankle rocker (I think I have a tight calf-posterior compartment). It’s hard for me to diagnose this scientifically at home. Or is it a problem with weakness of my metatarsals, or a weak arch/tripod, or a combination of all of the above.

Thank you for your time.

 Best Regards,


Audio Podcast: The Gait Guys, Barefoot Concepts

This is a blast from the past from our parent company, The Homunuculus Group ! Our podcast from 2008 ! Still solid info several years later. Just trying to get you all up to speed before we start up the podcasts here in a month or so.

Here we talk about the foot, intrinsic foot musculature, Nike Free, Vibram 5Fingers and some of Dr. Ivo’s always brilliant  neuromechanical discussions.

Enjoy !