Podcast 149: A runner's podcast. Many things running and biomechanics.


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http://directory.libsyn.com/episode/index/id/10506122



Show notes:


Exercise matters
3 months of exercise training reprogrammed the epigenetics of sperm DNA in healthy young men. Exercise silenced genes in sperm DNA involved in schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, cervical cancer, leukemia, and autism
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25864559?dopt=Abstract
Epigenomics. 2015 Aug;7(5):717-31. doi: 10.2217/epi.15.29. Epub 2015 Apr 13.
Genome-wide sperm DNA methylation changes after 3 months of exercise training in humans.
Denham J1, O'Brien BJ2, Harvey JT2, Charchar FJ

Footstrike doesnt matter?
https://www.outsideonline.com/2397214/foot-strike-running-study

Adaptation of Running Biomechanics to Repeated Barefoot Running: A Randomized Controlled Study - Karsten Hollander, Dominik Liebl, Stephanie Meining, Klaus Mattes, Steffen Willwacher, Astrid Zech, 2019
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0363546519849920
Is There an Economical Running Technique? A Review of Modifiable Biomechanical Factors Affecting Running Economy.
Moore IS. Sports Med. 2016.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26816209/

Running Technique is an Important Component of Running Economy and Performance.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28263283/
Folland JP, et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017.
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0363546519849920

Important to note though than less vertical oscillation is associated with better economy within groups of distance runners, eg ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28263… ; ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26816… compliant tendons but greater leg stiffness is the goal for distance runners, correct?

This video shows how end. runners compliance & economy are achieved by greater vertical excursions vs. sprinters who hit hard, get off the ground fast and burn more energy.
https://www.nytimes.com/video/sports/100000004379956/identifying-the-best-way-to-run.html

typically have peak vertical forces of 2.5-3.0 times body weight to offset gravity during contact portion of the stride.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hEnIbklXOiU

Effects of footwear midsole thickness on running biomechanics
Sports Medicine and Biomechanics
Mark H.C. Law, Eric M.F. Choi, Stephanie H.Y. Law, Subrina S.C. Chan , Sonia M.S. Wong, Eric C.K. Ching
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02640414.2018.1538066?journalCode=rjsp20

Knee muscle forces during walking and running in patellofemoral pain patients and pain-free controls.
Thor F.Besiera, Michael Fredericsona, Garry E.Gold, Gary S.Beaupréd, Scott L.Delp
Journal of Biomechanics Volume 42, Issue 7, 11 May 2009, Pages 898-905
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0021929009000396

"You do not have a shoe problem, you have a "thing in the shoe problem", meaning, it is you."

We say this so often in our offices.
"You do not have a shoe problem, you have a "thing in the shoe problem", meaning, it is you."
Translation: compromised mechanics leading to tissue overloading.
But we all have to strongly consider that injury is a result of the loading you have not trained gradually into, failure to adapt and accommodate, excessive mileage without adequate tissue recovery,

From the article:
"So Napier and co-author Richard Willy from the University of Montana reviewed the highest-quality research featuring randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews.
"What we see is that there's really no high-level evidence that any running shoe design can prevent injuries," Napier said."

Now, to be honest, in our (the gait guys) opinion, there are times we do recommend a change in the foot wear for a client, and it is often because it appears to be working against someone mechanics and is a contributory factor in their injury or complaint. And sometimes that shoe recommendation is a temporary one, and sometimes a permanent one. We can use a shoe to help us get to a better/faster end point. After all, when we sprain an ankle sometime a brace or crutches are helpful and protective, of temporary value. A wisely chosen shoe can act the same if we are dealing with an acute achilles tendinopathy or a painful bunion for example. And in those cases we might recommend a shoe that can give us an assist. Sometime, when appropriate perhaps it is a shoe with a stronger medial post, perhaps one with a higher or lower heel drop/delta, or more or less stack height, or perhaps a mid/forefoot rocker built into the shoe. The truth is, people come in with functional or "fixed" pathology and sometimes pairing up a shoe to help us around some conflicting biomechanics can be temporarily, and sometimes permanently, helpful. But, the shoe is never the only answer, a wise clinician has many things they can utilize, all the way up the kinetic chain sometimes.
The more you know, the better you can assist someone.

Shawn Allen, one of the gait guys

#Nigg, #barefoot, #shoes, #stackheight, #heeldrop, #achillestendinitis, #bunion, #pronation, #supination, #running, #gait, #thegaitguys, #gaitanalysis, #gaitproblems, #gaitcompensation

Can the design of a running shoe help prevent injury? A B.C. researcher says he has the answer

Kelly Crowe · CBC News · Posted: Dec 15, 2018 9:00 AM ET

https://www.cbc.ca/news/health/running-shoe-injury-prevention-second-opinion-1.4947408?fbclid=IwAR3XaGPdgfQ68wj2N0tHqIamDdpYuxTIIL2LeudUd-doYN8YqQrIZI9-s9E

Barefoot running is Barefoot running. There is no substitute

umage source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:06patriotsrun5.jpg

umage source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:06patriotsrun5.jpg

There is nothing quite like running barefoot .. literally ..

There are few studies which examined barefoot versus simulated barefoot versus shod running and this is one of them (1). The forefoot strike pattern and shorter stride length (or increased cadence, provided velocity is constant) often associated with barefoot running, as well as simulated barefoot running seems, to decrease vertical impact loading rates, depending upon the angle of the foot on landing and seem desirable for decreasing injury risk (2-4).

Running barefoot has the greatest amount of ankle dorsiflexion, plantar flexion and thus total range of motion with the knee flexion angle being the least when comparing it to shod and stimulated barefoot running. stride length was shorter and cadence increased, as was suspected and has been reported in many other studies. It is surprising that and stimulated barefoot running, the forefoot strike was there however cadence and stride length did not really change.

In short, the runners were able to simulate some elements of barefoot running, but they did not completely mimic it.

Want to know more? Join us this Wednesday on onlinece.com: Biomechanics 303 for a lively discussion of barefoot running and more. 8 EST, 7 CST, 6 MST, 5PST

  1. Leblanc M, Ferkranus H. Lower Extremity Joint Kinematics of Shod, Barefoot, and Simulated Barefoot Treadmill Running. Int J Exerc Sci. 2018;11(1):717-729.

    link to FREE FULL TEXT: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6033505/#b31-ijes-11-1-717

  2. Shih Y, Lin KL, Shiang TY. Is the foot striking pattern more important than barefoot or shod conditions in running? Gait Posture. 2013;88(4):116–120. [PubMed]

  3. Hobara H, Sato T, Sakaguchi M, Nakazawa K. Step frequency and lower extremity loading during running. Int J Sports Med. 2012;2012;33:310–313. [PubMed]

  4. Thompson MA, Lee SS, Seegmiller J, McGowan CP. Kinematic and kinetic comparison of barefoot and shod running in mid/forefoot and rearfoot strike runners. Gait Posture. 2015;41:957–959. [PubMed]

Barefoot vs Shoes...It's about the strike pattern


Footnotes 7 - Black and Red.jpg

“The influence of strike patterns on running is more significant than shoe conditions, which was observed in plantar pressure characteristics. Heel-toe running caused a significant impact force on the heel, but cushioned shoes significantly reduced the maximum loading rate. Meanwhile, although forefoot running can prevent impact, peak plantar pressure was centered at the forefoot for a long period, inducing a potential risk of injury in the metatarsus/phalanx. Plantar pressure on the forefoot with RFS was lesser and push-off force was greater when cushioned shoes were used than when running barefoot.”


takeaways from the study?

  • forefoot strike reduces heel impact

  • rear foot strike reduces forefoot impact

  • forefoot strike increases and prolongs pressures (in shoes) on the forefoot which could potentially cause forefoot problems

  • cushioned shoes do not really change impact force but change (reduce) the rate of loading

  • in a forefoot strike, pressures are shifted more to the mid foot

want to know more? Join us this Wednesday, December 19th on online.com: Biomechanics 303







Sun XYang YWang LZhang XFu W. Do Strike Patterns or Shoe Conditions have a Predominant Influence on Foot Loading? J Hum Kinet. 2018 Oct 15;64:13-23. doi: 10.1515/hukin-2017-0205. eCollection 2018 Sep.

link to FREE FULL TEXT: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6231350/





Pincer toe nails.

Screen Shot 2018-11-11 at 8.47.23 AM.png

Pincer Toe nails: You've seen them; did you know what they were and how they got that way? Or, did you dismiss them?

We think Hitomi’s hypothesis is correct. Here is why (this is paraphrased from our blog post on subungal hematomas and our revolutionary thinking on why they occur and it seems to fit well with pincer nail formation as well).

… when the skin is pulled at a differential rate over the distal phalange (from gripping of the toes rather than downward pressing through the toe pad) there will be a net lifting response of the nail from its bed as the skin is drawn forward of the backward drawn phalange (there is a NET movement of skin forward thus lifting the nail from its bedding). For an at-home example of this, put your hand AND fingers flat on a table top. Now activate JUST your distal long finger flexors so that only the tip of the fingers are in contact with the table top (there will be a small lifting of the fingers). There should be minimal flexion of the distal fingers at this point. Note the spreading and flattening of the nail. Now, without letting the finger tip-skin contact point move at all from the table, go ahead and increase your long flexor tone/pull fairly aggressively. You are in essence trying to pull the finger backward into flexion while leaving the skin pad in the same place on the table. Feel the pressure building under the distal tip of the finger nail as the skin is RELATIVELY drawn forward.] This is fat pad and skin being drawn forward (relative to the phalange bone being drawn backward) into the apex of the nail. Could this be magnifying the curvature of the nail and not offsetting the “automatic curving and shrinkage” function of the nail ? We think it is quite possible.

We have more to say on this topic, the above is just an excerpt of our blog post. More here, in the link below

https://thegaitguys.tumblr.com/post/127638788139/pincher-nails-who-knew-written-by-dr-shawn?fbclid=IwAR06ol516n9WF2Qh5TadlKd8esXrH5pVviycT_7QiMeScL0UJ3H9r1FF_OQ

Toe extension matters.

The season to pathologize our feet is upon us. Toe extension matters.

I blew out my flip flop,
Stepped on a pop top;
Cut my heel, had to cruise on back home.
But there's booze in the blender,
And soon it will render
That frozen concoction that helps me hang on. - Jimmy Buffett

I continue to see more and more people with inadequate toe extension. It is complicated. I see those who do not even have the awareness of toe extension, loss of strength of toe extension, loss of endurance of toe extension, loss of global range of toe extension (dorsiflexion at the MTP joint), more failure of long toe extensor (EHL) strength and more prominence of increased short toe extensor strength (EDB) and more frightening, a lack of disassociation of toe extension (MTP dorsiflexion) and ankle dorsiflexion. Many clients when asked to life their toes, will drive into ankle mortise dorsiflexion; ask them to just purely toe dorsiflex and the mental games begin, a wrinkled brow, intense concentration. If you cannot extended the toes sitting, how are you going to find them in swing phase of gait when balance, and other things, are more important?
Stand and lift your toes. The arch should go up, you have engaged the Windlass Mechanism, that winds up the plantar fascia and raised the arch. If you do not have competent, unconsciously competent, toe extension, your arch is not all that it can, and should, be. If you cannot raise your toes, thus raise the arch, thus plantarflex the first metatarsal, then in gait, when the foot is on the ground, you cannot properly position the sesamoids, properly get safe terminal ranges of hallux dorsiflexion at toe off, properly position the foot for loading and unloading, adequately achieve ankle dorsiflexion, adequately offer the hip a chance for ample hip extension, offer the glutes optimal chance to work in all phases to help control spin of the limb during loading and unloading, and the list goes on and on. I am sure I left much out there, this was written in a few minutes and unedited, just a short rant for the weekend. But if you have not championed toe extension, both in an unloaded and loaded foot (on the ground), achieved control of both long and short extensor muscles to the toes (and paired them well with the long and short toe flexors), disassociated toe extension from ankle dorsiflexion, and then figured out how to properly, timely, engage all these processes into your gait unconsciously, you are working on less of an optimal system than you should be. So, if your feet hurt, hips hurt, or a plethora of other problems that you are trying to fix with orthotics or other toys, maybe start with, "can you lift your toes?". It is a piece of the puzzle, trust me.
Or, you can just stay in your flip flops and perpetuate your toe flexion and wait for bad things to take root After all, tis the season soon !
Yes, toe extension in flip flops (we must flex our toes to keep them on) is as rare as a good multi-tasking man.

Shawn Allen, one of the gait guys.


" "Stand and lift your toes. The arch should go up, you have engaged the Windlass Mechanism, which winds up the plantar fascia and raises the arch. If you do not have competent, unconsciously competent for that matter, toe extension, your arch is not all that it can, and should, be. If you cannot raise your toes, thus raise the arch, thus plantarflex the first metatarsal, then in gait, when the foot is on the ground, you cannot properly position the sesamoids, properly get safe terminal ranges of hallux dorsiflexion at toe off, properly position the foot for loading and unloading, adequately achieve ankle dorsiflexion, adequately offer the hip a chance for ample hip extension, offer the glutes optimal chance to work in all phases to help control spin of the limb during loading and unloading, and the list goes on and on."

To drop or not to drop...That is the question...

Like to run in Zero Drop shoes? Good... we do too... but look at this:

"Barefoot running induced higher loading rates during overground running than the highest drop condition, while it was the opposite during treadmill running. Ankle plantar flexion and knee flexion angles at touchdown were higher during treadmill than overground running for all conditions, except for barefoot which did not show any difference between the tasks."

So, if you want to reduce vertical loading rates, run barefoot on a treadmill.

Does this mean if we want to decrease vertical loading rates when running overground (NOT on a treadmill) we should run in shoes with a large drop?

It seems, according to this study, that kinematics are the same with barefoot but not with shoes.

Which is best for you? You decide...

 

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00421-014-3072-x

More foot exercise studies to confuse you.

Don't necessarily believe all that you read. Please to not take away from this study that these 4 exercises: short-foot exercise, toes spread out, first-toe extension, second- to fifth-toes extension are golden goose exercises to rehab your athlete. On first glance if one is not thinking, that could be a mistake in translation.

"The intrinsic foot muscles maintain the medial longitudinal arch and aid in force distribution and postural control during gait."  That is a pretty bold statement by the study's authors. We would argue that a far less misleading statement would be that "the intrinsic foot muscles are a piece of the puzzle, just a piece, and to dismiss the powerhouse tibialis anterior, tibialis posterior, long and short toe flexors and particularly the extensors is a glaring oversight".  Yes, I know, the authors just wanted to study the intrinsics, I get it, -- one just has to be careful of the conclusions made when the study is so microscopic compared to the global perspective at hand.  Please, read on.

This study tried to correlate the effects of these 4 exercises: short-foot exercise, toes spread out, first-toe extension, second- to fifth-toes extension on activation of the foot intrinsics muscles they chose to observe (abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, abductor digiti minimi, quadratus plantae, flexor digiti minimi, adductor hallucis oblique, flexor hallucis brevis, the interossei, and lumbricals).

They looked at the activation before and after exercise in just 8 athletes. They did not look at non-athletes and yes, this is a terribly small N sampling and the study only used T2 weighted MRI to make these conclusions.

The study's conclusion was "Each of the 4 exercises was associated with increased activation in all of the plantar intrinsic foot muscles evaluated.".  

Here is my concern*. 
Did they consider the various foot typings ? (*Caveat, I have not read the entire study, I am trying to get it). There are many variables to consider including arch integrity, forefoot type, rearfoot type, foot flexibility, step width, step length, client weight amongst other things. Yes, that makes for a near impossible study, I get it. And, it does not appear they had a control study that looked at what happened right after walking. Wouldn't it be fair, and wise,  to see what the study showed after barefoot walking for 1-2 minutes ? I bet many of these muscles show significant activation there as well, after all, they were weight bearing and stepping down on the foot which requires the muscles to be activated and utilized.  So, does that then mean these 4 exercises are any better than walking ? Does that mean they will suffice for homework for your client ? Does that mean they will strengthen these muscles ? And, does activation mean proper pattern utilization of these muscles, meaning, is there functional translation over to functional use ? Yes, that is not what the study was looking at, but for darn sure that would have been nice info to know. Just take the study for what it found, and do not step beyond those tiny boundaries. We hope that is what they will go for in the next stage of study.  To be fair, they also concluded, "These results MAY have clinical implications for the prescription of specific exercises to target individual intrinsic foot muscles."  Safe words. Yes, I capitalized the word MAY.

- Dr. Shawn Allen, one of the gait guys.

Thomas M. Gooding, Mark A. Feger, Joseph M. Hart, and Jay Hertel (2016) Intrinsic Foot Muscle Activation During Specific Exercises: A T2 Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. Journal of Athletic Training In-Press. 
http://natajournals.com/doi/abs/10.4085/1062-6050-51.10.07
http://dx.doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-51.10.07

PreSchool children and barefoot policies

Preschool children and the possible effects of a barefoot policy while in kindergarden. 
You will see it if you pay enough attention to enough barefoot young children, some kids have not yet dropped the toes to the ground.
-study compared the effects of barefoot policy on children where their toes do not rest on the ground while standing normally
-In conclusion, the ground contact of the toes becomes better for boys in kindergarten with a barefoot policy. The results were inconclusive with regard to girls

The effect of the kindergarten barefoot policy on preschool children’s toes

Shigeki MatsudaKosho KasugaTadayuki HanaiTomohiro Demura, and Keisuke Komura

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4937549/

Pod #100: Hill Running + Cortical Brain Changes in Injuries

Pod #100  Hill Running + Cortical Brain Brain Changes in Injuries, Plus leg length challenges, Sole vs Heel lifts, Varying your Running Surface, Frontal plane biomechanics, Baker Cyst and Popliteal Muscle problems and more !

Show Sponsors:  
topoathletic.com
rocktape.com

Other Gait Guys stuff

A. Podcast links:

direct download URL: http://traffic.libsyn.com/thegaitguys/pod_100f.mp3

permalink URL: http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-100-hill-running-cortical-brain-brain-changes-in-injuries


B. iTunes link:
https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-gait-guys-podcast/id559864138
C. Gait Guys online /download store (National Shoe Fit Certification & more !)
http://store.payloadz.com/results/results.aspx?m=80204
D. other web based Gait Guys lectures:
Monthly lectures at : www.onlinece.com type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen, ”Biomechanics”

-Our Book: Pedographs and Gait Analysis and Clinical Case Studies
Electronic copies available here:

-Amazon/Kindle:
http://www.amazon.com/Pedographs-Gait-Analysis-Clinical-Studies-ebook/dp/B00AC18M3E

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https://itunes.apple.com/us/book/pedographs-and-gait-analysis/id554516085?mt=11

-Hardcopy available from our publisher:
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Show Notes:

1 Cortical change in chronic low back pain

http://www.anatomy-physiotherapy.com/articles/other/nervous/1329-cortical-change-in-chronic-low-back-pain
-Chronic low back pain is characterised by a range of structural, functional and neurochemical changes within the brain. Functional changes in individuals with chronic low back pain are reflected in a cortical reorganization, altered cortical activity and altered cortical responsiveness.

2  Lifting weights can change the brain
http://www.techvibes.com/blog/lifting-weights-can-beneficially-change-structure-of-brain-2015-10-27

3  Importance of varying running surfaces
http://triathlon.competitor.com/2015/05/training/importance-varying-running-surfaces_100995

4  Emergence of postural patterns as a function of vision and translation frequency.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10322069
J Neurophysiol. 1999 May;81(5):2325-39.
Our results suggest that visual information was important to maintaining a fixed position of the head and trunk in space, whereas proprioceptive information was sufficient to produce stable coordinative patterns between the support surface and legs.     *The CNS organizes postural patterns in this balance task as a function of available sensory information, biomechanical constraints, and translation frequency.

5  Previous hamstring injury is associated with altered kinematics.
“Previously injured athletes demonstrated significantly reduced biceps femoris muscle activation ratios with respect to ipsilateral gluteus maximus, ipsilateral erector spinae, ipsilateral external oblique, and contralateral rectus femoris in the late swing phase. We also detected sagittal asymmetry in hip flexion, pelvic tilt, and medial rotation of the knee effectively putting the hamstrings in a lengthened position just before heel strike.”

The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study. C. Daly1, U. McCarthy Persson2, R. Twycross-Lewis1, R. C. Woledge1,† andD. Morrissey1,

Podcast 87: Podcast 87: The Kenyan's Running Brain & "The" Anterior Compartment.

Plus, Some unknown facts about going minimalism and barefoot. We POUND anterior compartment strength today gang ! Hope you enjoy !

Show sponsors:
www.newbalancechicago.com

A. Link to our server: 
http://traffic.libsyn.com/thegaitguys/pod_87final.mp3

Direct Download: 
http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-87

Other Gait Guys stuff

B. iTunes link:
https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-gait-guys-podcast/id559864138

C. Gait Guys online /download store (National Shoe Fit Certification and more !) :
http://store.payloadz.com/results/results.aspx?m=80204

D. other web based Gait Guys lectures:
Monthly lectures at : www.onlinece.com   type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen,  ”Biomechanics”

Show notes:


On high heels and short muscles: A multiscale model for sarcomere loss in the gastrocnemius muscle

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022519314006262

The Brain Needs Oxygen

Maintained cerebral oxygenation during maximal self-paced exercise in elite Kenyan runners.

http://www.runnersworld.com/racing/the-brain-needs-oxygen
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25414248
J Appl Physiol (1985). 2014 Nov 20:jap.00909.2014. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00909.2014. [Epub ahead of print]

The texting lane in China
http://www.theguardian.com/world/shortcuts/2014/sep/15/china-mobile-phone-lane-distracted-walking-pedestrians

Dialogue on endurance training,
NeuroRehabilitation. 2006;21(1):43-50. 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16720937

Effects of dorsiflexor endurance exercises on foot drop secondary to multiple sclerosis.  Mount J1, Dacko S.

APOS Therapy
we were asked out opinion on this
http://apostherapy.com/

Foot instrinsic dialogue
Motor Control. 2014 Jul 15. [Epub ahead of print]

Quantifying the Contributions of a Flexor Digitorum Brevis Muscle on Postural Stability.
Okai LA1, Kohn AF.

There are many factors in adults that impair gait. It is not all biomechanical. This is part of our ongoing dialogue on the aging population and why gait impairments and falls are so prevalent.
Acta Bioeng Biomech. 2014;16(1):3-9.
Differences in gait pattern between the elderly and the young during level walking under low illumination.
Choi JS, Kang DW, Shin YH, Tack GR.


Podcast 72: Neuroplasticity, EVA Shoe Foam, and Shoe Trends

Maximalist shoes and the death of Minimalism ? Could this be true ?

*Show sponsor: www.newbalancechicago.com

Lems Shoes.  www.lemsshoes.comMention GAIT15 at check out for a 15% discount through August 31st, 2014.

A. Link to our server: 

http://traffic.libsyn.com/thegaitguys/pod_73f.mp3

Direct Download: 

http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-72

B. iTunes link:

https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-gait-guys-podcast/id559864138

C. Gait Guys online /download store (National Shoe Fit Certification and more !) :

http://store.payloadz.com/results/results.aspx?m=80204

D. other web based Gait Guys lectures:

www.onlinece.com   type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen,  ”Biomechanics”

______________

Today’s Show notes:

1. Neuroplasticity: Your Brain’s Amazing Ability to Form New Habits
new link (does not have the old photo ivo mentioned that he loved)
 
2. Last week we pounded the sand on EVA foam and maximalist shoes. There was alot of attention, emails and good social media discussion on the topic.  
LETS REVIEW IT
file:///Users/admin/Downloads/p142_Heel_shoe_interactions_and_EVA_foam_f_web_150dpi.pdf
 
3. Then there just last week there was an article in LER on “the death of minimalist shoes” ? 
READ THIS: 
The rise and fall of minimalist footwear | Lower Extremity Review Magazine
http://lermagazine.com/cover_story/the-rise-and-fall-of-minimalist-footwear
 

4.  Physical Therapy as Effective as Surgery for Meniscal Tear

Kathleen Louden

March 20, 2013
Torn Meniscus? Thinking about surgery? Think again…

5. Cast study: the broken foot tripod

Podcast 70: Achilles Solutions and Foot Cases

The Achilles and Calf: Achieve Posterior Length via Anterior Strength

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Permalink: http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-70-0B. 

iTunes link:

https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-gait-guys-podcast/id559864138

C. Gait Guys online /download store (National Shoe Fit Certification and more !) :

http://store.payloadz.com/results/results.aspx?m=80204

D. other web based Gait Guys lectures:

www.onlinece.com   type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen,  ”Biomechanics”

______________

Today’s Show notes:

*Show sponsor: Lems Shoes.  www.lemsshoes.com
Mention GAIT15 at check out for a 15% discount through August 31st.
 
1. Achilles tendons, loading, and biomechanical changes with different shoes and heel stack heights.
 
2. Aging adults, falls and keeping them and their gait safe.
 
3. Gait and speed evolution of vertebrates.
 
4. Blaise Dubois et al on Barefoot Running. Shod vs unshod.
 
5. Females, pronation, and back pain. The Framingham foot study.
 
6. Your feet and orienteering.
 
7. A case of calcaneal valgus in a youngster.
 
8. Structural integrity is decreased in both Achilles tendons in people with unilateral Achilles tendinopathy
http://www.jsams.org/article/S1440-2440(14)00115-7/abstract

The Naked Foot: The Soft Neurology behind Barefoot.

The Naked Foot: Thoughts for the Shoe Minimalist

This may be one of the very first articles we ever wrote for The Gait Guys. It must be 7-8 years old now, before the barefoot-minimalist craze ever started. It is a bit dated, but we think that it was time to revisit its contents. You will see that many of our early core principles have not changed and you can see the thought process of where the fads and trends were projected to go.  Wind your mind back a near decade, and read on !

_____________________

If you want to follow the fad craze these days, just look to companies like Vibram and Nike. Vibram is the company that has brought you the soles and treads of many of the shoes you have worn over the years and of course Nike are the people who first brought you the “running shoe” as we know it today. Nike first brought us the waffle bottom trainer, the cross trainer, air pockets, “shocks” and, the Air Jordan and now their barefoot minimalist series, the Nike Free. Now, we are sure not many of you have heard of the “Vibram Five Fingers” barefoot slip-on ‘shoe’ but virtually everyone who runs in some manner has seen and heard about the Nike Free. What initially stymied us when they first came out was the obvious question of “Why would the same people who sell us the shoes, and give us so many varieties and categories to choose from, now be advocating that we train barefoot, or close to it? ” Or are they ?

  • (Addendum:  this article was originally written long ago, at the start of this fad, the fad that has become a trend.  The article traveled fast around the internet and garnered us much attention including a gig with Vibram as consultants.  But that was then, this is now.  We, and the trend have come a long way, and so has the research.  Some supportive for the trend, some disagreements and plenty of controversy.  The remainder of this article has been unedited, hence its tense and outdated verbiage, shoe types and research.  But we thought it was time to review before moving ahead.)

The Nike version they are pushing, first the Nike Free 5 and now down to the Nike Free 3, has a light weight thin flexible sole and thin vamp top cover material whoís purpose is to merely hold the shoe onto the foot. The Vibram device, which is a fascinating yet simple slipper, is even more simplistic but has some brilliance built right into its heart. It is merely a rubber sock with compartments for each individual toe but that is part of its brilliance. So why would Nike and now Vibram go against their own creations and advocate that we begin walking and running barefoot, or at least become more “shoe-minimalists” after decades of building shoe and sole lines that previously were designed for various conditions, foot types and activities ? There appears to be sound moral reasoning if you delve into the research, but you have to look closely and you have to be careful you do not have one of those foot types that could lead to problems with this type of footwear (but that is a topic for another article to come soon, see Part II).

Barefoot theories are nothing new. In 1960 Abebe Bikila, perhaps the greatest barefoot runner of all time, won the first of his consecutive gold medals without shoes setting a world record of 2:15:17. Englandís Bruce Tulloh was setting overseas records into the 1960’s running unshod, skin to the ground. Today Ken Bob Saxton is one of the most visible barefoot marathoners, long beard and all, and is an advocate of the technique.

With the introduction of the Nike Free, the interest in barefoot running resurfaced at the turn of the century. An article by Michael Warburton, published as an internet paper on barefoot theories, seemed to spark some of the resurgence of the method of running. In his brilliant paper he had some interesting thoughts and pointed out some noteworthy facts. He indicated that research showed that an extra mass of 100 grams attached to the foot diminished the economy of running by one percent. Thus, two 10 ounce shoes (the weight of a lightweight training shoe) could compoundingly cripple you by more than five percent in efficiency. In tangible terms that could be more than six minutes tacked onto a world class marathoner, taking a world record time to a mere first group finishing time. So, it is a question of weight and time, or is there something more ?

To get started with some hard and simple research facts, current research has been conducted showing that plantar (bottom of the foot) sensory feedback plays a central role in safe and effective locomotion, that more shoe cushioning can lead to higher impact forces on the joints and higher risk of injury, that unshod (without shoes) lowers contact time versus shod running, that there are higher braking and pushing impulses in shod versus unshod running, that unshod running presents a reduction of impact peak force that would reduce the high mechanical stress that occurs during repetitive running and that the unshod foot induces a neural-mechanical adaptation which could enhance the storage and restitution of elastic energy at ankle extensor level. These are only some of the research findings but they are some of the more significant ones. These issues will not only support injury management benefits for the unshod runner but increase speed, force and power output.

Stepping backwards in time a little, in the caveman days things were different. The foot was unshod (without shoes) from the moment of the first step until one’s dying day, and thus the foot developed and looked different. The sole of the foot was thicker and callused due to the constant contact with rough and offending surfaces thus preventing skin penetration, the foot proper was more muscular and it may have been wider in the forefoot and the toes were likely slightly separated due to the demands of gripping which would obviously necessitate increase muscular strength and bulk to the foot intrinsic muscles. It was the constant input of uneven and offending surfaces such as rocks, twigs, mud, foliage and debris that stimulated the bottom of the foot, and thus the intrinsic muscles, sensing joint positions and relaying those variations to the brain for corresponding descending motor changes and adaptations to maintain protection and balance. The foot simply worked different, it worked better, it worked more like the engineering marvel that it truly is. The foot was uncovered and the surfaces we walked on were uneven and challenging. However, as time went on, man decided to mess with a good thing. He took a foot that was highly sensitive, a virtual sensory organ with a significant sensory and motor representation in the brain (only the hands and face have more brain representation as represented by the sensory and motor homunculus of the brain) and he not only covered it up with a slab of leather or rubber but he then flattened and then paved not only his world, but also his home, with black hard top, cement, wood or tile thus completing the total sensory information deprivation of the entire foot. Thus, not only did he take away critical adaptive skills from himself and generations to follow, but he began the deprivation of the brain of critical information from which the central nervous system would need to develop and continue to function effectively. It is not unlikely that the man of pre-shod time had a strong competent foot arch (perhaps somewhat flat to increase surface area contact for adaptation), but one that did not need orthotics, stability shoes or rigid shanks and inserts. In other words, the foot and its lower limb muscles were strong with exceptional skills and endurance. But in today’s day and time things are now different. We now affix a shoe to the child’s foot even before he can walk and then when he does, all propriosensory information necessary for the development of critical spinal and central nervous system reflexes is ensured to be virtually absent. Is it any wonder why there are so many people in chronic pain from postural disorders related to central core weakness and inhibition ? Is it any wonder why so many people seem to have flat incompetent feet and arches? Man has done it to himself, but thankfully man has proven that what he can do, he can undo. Thankfully we see modern medical research that has delved into this realm of thought and has uncovered the woes of our ways and to follow, companies like those mentioned earlier are imagining and developing devices that will allow us some protection from modern day offenses such as glass, plastics and metal and thus allow us the slow and gradual return to our healthier foot days, all fashion sense aside.

 Shawn and Ivo, The Gait Guys

Two fellas that were here at the beginning, and two fellas that will be here for the duration.  

The Naked Foot: Thoughts for the Shoe Minimalist

Authors: Dr. Shawn Allen, Dr. Ivo Waerlop, Coach Chris Korfist

This may be one of the very first articles we ever wrote for The Gait Guys. It must be 7-8 years old now, before the barefoot-minimalist craze ever started. It is a bit dated, but we think that it was time to revisit its contents. You will see that many of our early core principles have not changed and you can see the thought process of where the fads and trends were projected to go.  Wind your mind back a near decade, and read on !

_____________________

If you want to follow the fad craze these days, just look to companies like Vibram and Nike. Vibram is the company that has brought you the soles and treads of many of the shoes you have worn over the years and of course Nike are the people who first brought you the “running shoe” as we know it today. Nike first brought us the waffle bottom trainer, the cross trainer, air pockets, “shocks” and, the Air Jordan and now their barefoot minimalist series, the Nike Free. Now, we are sure not many of you have heard of the “Vibram Five Fingers” barefoot slip-on ‘shoe’ but virtually everyone who runs in some manner has seen and heard about the Nike Free. What initially stymied us when they first came out was the obvious question of “Why would the same people who sell us the shoes, and give us so many varieties and categories to choose from, now be advocating that we train barefoot, or close to it? ” Or are they ?

  • (Addendum:  this article was originally written long ago, at the start of this fad, the fad that has become a trend.  The article traveled fast around the internet and garnered us much attention including a gig with Vibram as consultants.  But that was then, this is now.  We, and the trend have come a long way, and so has the research.  Some supportive for the trend, some disagreements and plenty of controversy.  The remainder of this article has been unedited, hence its tense and outdated verbiage, shoe types and research.  But we thought it was time to review before moving ahead.)

The Nike version they are pushing, first the Nike Free 5 and now down to the Nike Free 3, has a light weight thin flexible sole and thin vamp top cover material whoís purpose is to merely hold the shoe onto the foot. The Vibram device, which is a fascinating yet simple slipper, is even more simplistic but has some brilliance built right into its heart. It is merely a rubber sock with compartments for each individual toe but that is part of its brilliance. So why would Nike and now Vibram go against their own creations and advocate that we begin walking and running barefoot, or at least become more “shoe-minimalists” after decades of building shoe and sole lines that previously were designed for various conditions, foot types and activities ? There appears to be sound moral reasoning if you delve into the research, but you have to look closely and you have to be careful you do not have one of those foot types that could lead to problems with this type of footwear (but that is a topic for another article to come soon, see Part II).

Barefoot theories are nothing new. In 1960 Abebe Bikila, perhaps the greatest barefoot runner of all time, won the first of his consecutive gold medals without shoes setting a world record of 2:15:17. Englandís Bruce Tulloh was setting overseas records into the 1960’s running unshod, skin to the ground. Today Ken Bob Saxton is one of the most visible barefoot marathoners, long beard and all, and is an advocate of the technique.

With the introduction of the Nike Free, the interest in barefoot running resurfaced at the turn of the century. An article by Michael Warburton, published as an internet paper on barefoot theories, seemed to spark some of the resurgence of the method of running. In his brilliant paper he had some interesting thoughts and pointed out some noteworthy facts. He indicated that research showed that an extra mass of 100 grams attached to the foot diminished the economy of running by one percent. Thus, two 10 ounce shoes (the weight of a lightweight training shoe) could compoundingly cripple you by more than five percent in efficiency. In tangible terms that could be more than six minutes tacked onto a world class marathoner, taking a world record time to a mere first group finishing time. So, it is a question of weight and time, or is there something more ?

To get started with some hard and simple research facts, current research has been conducted showing that plantar (bottom of the foot) sensory feedback plays a central role in safe and effective locomotion, that more shoe cushioning can lead to higher impact forces on the joints and higher risk of injury, that unshod (without shoes) lowers contact time versus shod running, that there are higher braking and pushing impulses in shod versus unshod running, that unshod running presents a reduction of impact peak force that would reduce the high mechanical stress that occurs during repetitive running and that the unshod foot induces a neural-mechanical adaptation which could enhance the storage and restitution of elastic energy at ankle extensor level. These are only some of the research findings but they are some of the more significant ones. These issues will not only support injury management benefits for the unshod runner but increase speed, force and power output.

Stepping backwards in time a little, in the caveman days things were different. The foot was unshod (without shoes) from the moment of the first step until one’s dying day, and thus the foot developed and looked different. The sole of the foot was thicker and callused due to the constant contact with rough and offending surfaces thus preventing skin penetration, the foot proper was more muscular and it may have been wider in the forefoot and the toes were likely slightly separated due to the demands of gripping which would obviously necessitate increase muscular strength and bulk to the foot intrinsic muscles. It was the constant input of uneven and offending surfaces such as rocks, twigs, mud, foliage and debris that stimulated the bottom of the foot, and thus the intrinsic muscles, sensing joint positions and relaying those variations to the brain for corresponding descending motor changes and adaptations to maintain protection and balance. The foot simply worked different, it worked better, it worked more like the engineering marvel that it truly is. The foot was uncovered and the surfaces we walked on were uneven and challenging. However, as time went on, man decided to mess with a good thing. He took a foot that was highly sensitive, a virtual sensory organ with a significant sensory and motor representation in the brain (only the hands and face have more brain representation as represented by the sensory and motor homunculus of the brain) and he not only covered it up with a slab of leather or rubber but he then flattened and then paved not only his world, but also his home, with black hard top, cement, wood or tile thus completing the total sensory information deprivation of the entire foot. Thus, not only did he take away critical adaptive skills from himself and generations to follow, but he began the deprivation of the brain of critical information from which the central nervous system would need to develop and continue to function effectively. It is not unlikely that the man of pre-shod time had a strong competent foot arch (perhaps somewhat flat to increase surface area contact for adaptation), but one that did not need orthotics, stability shoes or rigid shanks and inserts. In other words, the foot and its lower limb muscles were strong with exceptional skills and endurance. But in today’s day and time things are now different. We now affix a shoe to the child’s foot even before he can walk and then when he does, all propriosensory information necessary for the development of critical spinal and central nervous system reflexes is ensured to be virtually absent. Is it any wonder why there are so many people in chronic pain from postural disorders related to central core weakness and inhibition ? Is it any wonder why so many people seem to have flat incompetent feet and arches? Man has done it to himself, but thankfully man has proven that what he can do, he can undo. Thankfully we see modern medical research that has delved into this realm of thought and has uncovered the woes of our ways and to follow, companies like those mentioned earlier are imagining and developing devices that will allow us some protection from modern day offenses such as glass, plastics and metal and thus allow us the slow and gradual return to our healthier foot days, all fashion sense aside.

 Shawn and Ivo, The Gait Guys

Two fellas that were here at the beginning, and two fellas that will be here for the duration. 

Podcast #29: DARPA Robots & Cartilage in Runners

podcast link: 

http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-29-darpa-robots-cartilage-in-runners

iTunes link:

https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-gait-guys-podcast/id559864138

Gait Guys online /download store:

http://store.payloadz.com/results/results.aspx?m=80204

other web based Gait Guys lectures:

www.onlinece.com   type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen  Biomechanics


Today’s show notes:

1. Neuroscience Piece:
Human or Robot? Harder to Tell In Latest Bipedal Robot PETMAN Video
http://singularityhub.com/2013/04/07/human-or-robot-harder-to-tell-in-latest-bipedal-robot-petman-video/

Boston Dynamics is building the bipedal PETMAN (Protection Ensemble Test Mannequin) for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).

_____________
2.BIOWARE
How do we fit into this growing paradigm (bioware) and the bionics paradigm

_______
3.  http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/04/130408184727.htm

Human or Robot? Harder to Tell In Latest Bipedal Robot PETMAN Video

In their study published in the American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology on April 3, 2013, Roberts and Booth put rats in cages with running wheels and measured how much each rat willingly ran on their wheels during a six-day period. They then bred the top 26 runners with each other and bred the 26 rats that ran the least with each other. They repeated this process through 10 generations and found that the line of running rats chose to run 10 times more than the line of “lazy” rats.

4. Defending Barefoot

http://drnicksrunningblog.com/2013/04/04/experts-defend-barefoot-running-shoes-despite-new-evidence-indicating-the-footwear-could-promote-bone-injury/

5. hunter7979 asked you:

 Hey I have been injured for a long time I was hoping you could give me some insight on how to treat it. Started with ITBS in both knees about two years ago. Somehow my pelvis got thrown out of whack and I ended up with funky gait and scoliosis. I feel like my left leg is shorter, internally rotated and pronating. Supposedly my right leg is actually a tiny bit longer but not enough to make a real difference. Orthotics helped balance out my pelvis but I still walk/run funky. Appreciate it guys
6. Disclaimer

7.  How does your sport change your gait?
Twitter post we did….The Gait Guys (@TheGaitGuys)
4/4/13 1:18 PM
Doing lots of “in the guard” strategizing in jiujitsu last few weeks. Hip flexors are getting punished & inhibiting Glutes and hip extension.
8. Epidemic of Crocs footwear in the fort Meyers airport! No wonder we have so many gait problems. Would like to get @TheGaitGuys opinion!



Podcast #28: Nanotech, Athletes & Barefoot ?


podcast link: 

http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-28-nanotechnology-athletes-minimalism

iTunes link:

https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-gait-guys-podcast/id559864138

Gait Guys online /download store:

http://store.payloadz.com/results/results.aspx?m=80204

other web based Gait Guys lectures:

www.onlinece.com   type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen  Biomechanics


Today’s show notes:

1. Neuroscience Pieces:

Technology is advancing so quickly that it won’t be long before the era of performance-enhancing drugs seems like the athletic Stone Age. Injecting or ingesting chemicals will be considered primitive when athletes will have the ability to have robotic cells powered by software coursing through their veins.

Russian Billionaire Wants to Create Cyborgs for Real

http://mashable.com/2013/04/01/avatar-project/


2.
Barefoot Running Can Cause Injuries, Too

By GRETCHEN REYNOLDS


http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/03/06/barefoot-running-can-cause-injuries-too/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23439417

3. Running with sesamoiditis: How I resolved a 10 year injury by ditching my traditional running shoes. | Dr. Nick’s Running Blog
http://drnicksrunningblog.com/2013/04/04/running-with-sesamoiditis-how-i-resolved-a-10-year-injury-by-ditching-my-traditional-running-shoes/


4. Case
I have a question about peroneus longus in relation to “morton’s toe”. I did a very deep deep massage for an extended length of time and found that when I put my foot on the floor afterwards, the first metatarsal head was no longer raised!! Can you advise what may cause the peroneus longus to become tight, and if there any good stretches for it?
Thank you,Tracy



5. Do orthopedic shoes really help?
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23496924

Well, they do seem to assist in foot placement and can enhance proprioception, so in the right circumstances, they can be an excellent adjunct to exercise and rehabilitation.

“Footwear adaptation led to pain relief and to improved foot & ankle proprioception. It is likely that that enhancement allows patients to better control foot placement. As a result, higher dynamic stability has been observed. LDS seems therefore a valuable index that could be used in early evaluation of footwear outcome in clinical settings.”


6. Shoes and Performance. Does it surprise you that it affects adolescents too? It shouldn’t:

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/03/130319091420.htm

Podcast #25: Bionics, Arm Swing & Footwear

Great podcast today, #25. Wide range of topics today: the first truly bionic body part, technical shoe issues, GTO’s and more. 

podcast link: 

http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-25-bionics-arm-swing-footwear

iTunes link: https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-gait-guys-podcast/id559864138

Gait Guys online /download store:

http://store.payloadz.com/results/results.aspx?m=80204

Today’s show notes:

 

1. The First Truly Bionic Hand

http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/a-sensational-breakthrough-the-first-bionic-hand-that-can-feel-8498622.html

“The first bionic hand that allows an amputee to feel what they are touching will be transplanted later this year in a pioneering operation that could introduce a new generation of artificial limbs with sensory perception.

2. Effects of toning shoes on lower extremity gait biomechanics

http://www.clinbiomech.com/article/S0268-0033%2813%2900010-7/abstract

Clinical Biomechanics, Jan 2013

3. Beware of trendy barefoot running shoes - you could end up with broken bones in your foot

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2289725/Beware-trendy-barefoot-running-shoes–end-broken-bones-foot.html?ito=feeds-newsxml

  • Advocates of barefoot running claim it can reduce injuries and back pain
  • ‘Minimalist’ shoes such as these now account for 15% of sales
  • But experts say many people suffer injuries by overdoing it early on
  • Runners should make transition from regular trainers more slowly, they say

4. Foot strike and injury rates in endurance runners: a retrospective study.
Daoud AI, Geissler GJ, Wang F, Saretsky J, Daoud YA, Lieberman DE.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012 Jul;44(7):1325-34. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182465115.

Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.

5. Effects of foot strike on low back posture, shock attenuation, and comfort in running.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23073217/
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013 Mar;45(3):490-6

CONCLUSION: Change in foot strike from RFS to FFS decreased overall ROM in the lumbar spine but did not make a difference in flexion or extension in which the lumbar spine is positioned. Shock attenuation was greater in RFS. RFS was perceived a more comfortable running pattern.

*it seems to becoming a question as to what you are doing with the body parts at impact……..where it be you are RFS or FFS.  Do you have the ability to protect the parts in varying mechanical stressful positions.

6. Hey guys, Dr. Ryan:

I just listened to Pod 23 and Ivo you mentioned sagittal curves not developing until after birth..  There is evidence they begin to develop in-utero.  Here is an article excerpt and link to it.
 
"In many anatomy texts, it is often claimed and/or assumed that the cervical lordosis is a secondary curve and is not present during intra-uterine life. However, as early as 1977, Bagnall et al3 demonstrated that the cervical lordotic curve is formed in intrauterine life (9.5 weeks). In 195 fetuses, Bagnall et al3 found that by 9.5 weeks, 83% of fetuses have a cervical lordosis, 11% have a military configuration, and only 6% of fetuses are in the typically described kyphotic position of the cervical spine. This means that by 9.5 weeks, 94% of the fetuses are starting to use their posterior cervical muscles to pull the cervical curve away from the fetal “C”-shape. Fetuses have a cervical lordosis before birth, however, the lordosis increases during post-natal life at ages 3 months-9 months as the infant raises his/her head and begins to sit up.4”

REFERENCES

  1. Harrison DD, et al. Spine 1996; 21: 667-675.
  2. Harrison DD, et al. Spine 2004; 29:2485-2492.
  3. Bagnall KM, et al. J Anat 1977;124:791-802.
  4. Kure S. J Tokyo Med Collage 1972;30;453-470.
  5. Kasai T, et al. Growth. Spine 1996;21:2067-2073.
  6. Harrison DE, Harrson DD, Haas JW. Evanston, WY: Harrison CBP Seminars, Inc., 2002, ISBN 0-9721314-0-X.
  7. Shatz A, et al. Acta Anat 1994;149:141-145.
  8. McAviney J, et al. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2005;28:187-193.
  9. Bastecki A, et al. ADHD: A CBP Case Study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2004; 27(8):e14.


7. “Dynamic Arm Swing in Human Walking, (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19640879) where it was determined that normal arm swinging required minimal shoulder torque, while volitionally holding the arms still required 12% more metabolic energy. Among measures of gait mechanics, vertical ground reaction moment was most affected by arm swinging and increased by 63% without it.
* brings up issues of shoulder pathology……rot cuff, frozen shoulder, carrying a purse, water bottle etc


8. Winter foot wear:
We like Steger Mukluks…….youtube video   "gait guys mukluks”

9. Versions: one of the more difficult concepts to grasp…………..here is a Q from a FB reader

  • Does retroversion mean this child will automatically grow up with abnormal mechanics - leading to possible knee foot hip back issue etc? Is there a fix to prevent such without an ortho’s bone saw?
     
    10. The role of GTO’s in plyometric exercises.
Though you weigh less when naked, it doesn’t mean you are more efficient…  
  “Running barefoot offers no metabolic advantage over running in lightweight, cushioned shoes.”  
 This study looked at VO2 max (ie. the bodies ability to utilize oxygen, or more precisely, the maximal oxygen uptake or the maximum volume of oxygen that can be utilized in one minute during maximal or exhaustive exercise. It is measured as milliliters of oxygen used in one minute per kilogram of body weight ). 
 The study found that VO2 increased as weight was added to the foot, whether or not ehy were wearing shoes AND there was not significant difference. 
  “V˙O(2) increased by approximately 1% for each 100 g added per foot, whether barefoot or shod (P < 0.001). However, barefoot and shod running did not significantly differ in V˙O(2) or metabolic power. A consequence of these two findings was that for footwear conditions of equal mass, shod running had ∼3%-4% lower V˙O(2) and metabolic power demand than barefoot running (P < 0.05).”  
 An interesting finding was that VO2 was actually 3-4% less for shod running than barefoot, indicating increased metabolic efficiency (albeit small) for shoes .  
 Why? Our theory is increased biomechanical efficiency with shoes. Shoes, creating less pronatory force and accessory motion (due to cushioning and constraints of the shoe; ie it takes some of the complexity out of the motion) created a more rigid lever with better force transduction. 
  The Gait Guys. Asking the hard questions and giving you the facts with each post.         

     
  Med Sci Sports Exerc.  2012 Aug;44(8):1519-25. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182514a88. 
 Metabolic cost of running barefoot versus shod: is lighter better? 
  Franz JR ,  Wierzbinski CM ,  Kram R . 
 
 Source 
 Locomotion Lab, Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA. jason.franz@colorado.edu 
 
 
 Abstract 
 PURPOSE: 
 Based on mass alone, one might intuit that running barefoot would exact a lower metabolic cost than running in shoes. Numerous studies have shown that adding mass to shoes increases submaximal oxygen uptake (V˙O(2)) by approximately 1% per 100 g per shoe. However, only two of the seven studies on the topic have found a statistically significant difference in V˙O(2) between barefoot and shod running. The lack of difference found in these studies suggests that factors other than shoe mass (e.g., barefoot running experience, foot strike pattern, shoe construction) may play important roles in determining the metabolic cost of barefoot versus shod running. Our goal was to quantify the metabolic effects of adding mass to the feet and compare oxygen uptake and metabolic power during barefoot versus shod running while controlling for barefoot running experience, foot strike pattern, and footwear. 
 METHODS: 
 Twelve males with substantial barefoot running experience ran at 3.35 m·s with a midfoot strike pattern on a motorized treadmill, both barefoot and in lightweight cushioned shoes (∼150 g per shoe). In additional trials, we attached small lead strips to each foot/shoe (∼150, ∼300, and ∼450 g). For each condition, we measured the subjects’ rates of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production and calculated metabolic power. 
 RESULTS: 
 V˙O(2) increased by approximately 1% for each 100 g added per foot, whether barefoot or shod (P < 0.001). However, barefoot and shod running did not significantly differ in V˙O(2) or metabolic power. A consequence of these two findings was that for footwear conditions of equal mass, shod running had ∼3%-4% lower V˙O(2) and metabolic power demand than barefoot running (P < 0.05). 
 CONCLUSIONS: 
 Running barefoot offers no metabolic advantage over running in lightweight, cushioned shoes. 
 
 PMID: 22367745  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22367745  
  all material copyright 2013 The Gait Guys/The Homunculus Group .

Though you weigh less when naked, it doesn’t mean you are more efficient…

“Running barefoot offers no metabolic advantage over running in lightweight, cushioned shoes.”

This study looked at VO2 max (ie. the bodies ability to utilize oxygen, or more precisely, the maximal oxygen uptake or the maximum volume of oxygen that can be utilized in one minute during maximal or exhaustive exercise. It is measured as milliliters of oxygen used in one minute per kilogram of body weight ).

The study found that VO2 increased as weight was added to the foot, whether or not ehy were wearing shoes AND there was not significant difference.

“V˙O(2) increased by approximately 1% for each 100 g added per foot, whether barefoot or shod (P < 0.001). However, barefoot and shod running did not significantly differ in V˙O(2) or metabolic power. A consequence of these two findings was that for footwear conditions of equal mass, shod running had ∼3%-4% lower V˙O(2) and metabolic power demand than barefoot running (P < 0.05).”

An interesting finding was that VO2 was actually 3-4% less for shod running than barefoot, indicating increased metabolic efficiency (albeit small) for shoes.

Why? Our theory is increased biomechanical efficiency with shoes. Shoes, creating less pronatory force and accessory motion (due to cushioning and constraints of the shoe; ie it takes some of the complexity out of the motion) created a more rigid lever with better force transduction.

The Gait Guys. Asking the hard questions and giving you the facts with each post.       


Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012 Aug;44(8):1519-25. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182514a88.

Metabolic cost of running barefoot versus shod: is lighter better?

Source

Locomotion Lab, Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA. jason.franz@colorado.edu

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Based on mass alone, one might intuit that running barefoot would exact a lower metabolic cost than running in shoes. Numerous studies have shown that adding mass to shoes increases submaximal oxygen uptake (V˙O(2)) by approximately 1% per 100 g per shoe. However, only two of the seven studies on the topic have found a statistically significant difference in V˙O(2) between barefoot and shod running. The lack of difference found in these studies suggests that factors other than shoe mass (e.g., barefoot running experience, foot strike pattern, shoe construction) may play important roles in determining the metabolic cost of barefoot versus shod running. Our goal was to quantify the metabolic effects of adding mass to the feet and compare oxygen uptake and metabolic power during barefoot versus shod running while controlling for barefoot running experience, foot strike pattern, and footwear.

METHODS:

Twelve males with substantial barefoot running experience ran at 3.35 m·s with a midfoot strike pattern on a motorized treadmill, both barefoot and in lightweight cushioned shoes (∼150 g per shoe). In additional trials, we attached small lead strips to each foot/shoe (∼150, ∼300, and ∼450 g). For each condition, we measured the subjects’ rates of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production and calculated metabolic power.

RESULTS:

V˙O(2) increased by approximately 1% for each 100 g added per foot, whether barefoot or shod (P < 0.001). However, barefoot and shod running did not significantly differ in V˙O(2) or metabolic power. A consequence of these two findings was that for footwear conditions of equal mass, shod running had ∼3%-4% lower V˙O(2) and metabolic power demand than barefoot running (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

Running barefoot offers no metabolic advantage over running in lightweight, cushioned shoes.

PMID: 22367745
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22367745

all material copyright 2013 The Gait Guys/The Homunculus Group.