QL and Patellofemoral Pain?

photo credit: https://www.t-nation.com/training/training-disasters

photo credit: https://www.t-nation.com/training/training-disasters

"Subjects with PFP(patello femoral pain) have a higher prevalence of MTrPs (Myofascial trigger points) in bilateral GMe (gluteus medius)) and QL (quadratus lumborum) muscles. They demonstrate less hip abduction strength compared with controls, but the TPPRT (trigger point pressure release therapy, AKA ischemic compression) did not result in an increase in hip abduction strength. "

It is not surprising that when the hip is involved, the knee will be involved. As Dr. Allen often likes to say "the knee is basically in joint between 2 ball and socket joints ".

The gluteus medius and quadratus lumborum, along with the adductors are coronal plane stabilizers of the pelvis. They both have rotational components to their function as well affecting the hip directly for the former and lumbar spine for the latter. You can see our other QL articles about this here and here.

It is not much of a stretch to imagine that dysfunction of these muscles could result in trigger points and/or dysfunction of the knee (or foot for that matter ) could cause trigger points in these muscles.

Here is an article (1) examining trigger points in the gluteus medius and quadratus lumborum which, if you are familiar with Porterfield and DeRosa's work (2), are intimately linked during gait. We found it interesting that skin nick compression did not increase hip abduction strength where we find dry needling and intramuscular therapy often do.

Don't overlook these muscles and this important relationship.

 

 

  1. Roach, Sean et al.Prevalence of Myofascial Trigger Points in the Hip in Patellofemoral Pain Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation , Volume 94 , Issue 3 , 522 - 526link to free full text article: http://www.archives-pmr.org/article/S0003-9993(12)01079-9/fulltexthttp://www.archives-pmr.org/article/S0003-9993(12)01079-9/fulltext

  2. J. Porterfield, C. DeRosa (Eds.) Mechanical low back pain. 2nd ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia; 1991

 

Foot orthoses and patellofemoral pain: frontal plane effects during running | Lower Extremity Review Magazine

We all see people with patellofemoral pain. Some of those cases may have responded to orthotic therapy. Some studies show that the effects on frontal plane kinematics are minimal (1 degree); this doesn’t mean it didn’t work, or this amount is not clinically significant. So why do they help? Perhaps it is a “timing” issue and the knee abduction moment.

“Our results are consistent with a 2003 study by Mundermann et al that compared the effects of custom orthoses (with posting, molding, or a combination of both) to flat inserts. For each orthotic condition, these authors reported a significant delay in the timing of the peak knee abduction moment. This finding may be related to the aforementioned clinical effects, as delaying the peak knee abduction moment would effectively decrease the rate of loading at the knee joint. The rate of loading has been previously implicated as a possible contributing factor in running-related overuse injuries, as runners with a history of injury have demonstrated a higher rate of loading of the vertical ground reaction force than runners with no history of running-related injury.”

This is an interesting take. If you have a few moments, give it a read:

Isometrics for patellar tendonitis?   We are familiar with different modes of exercise: isometric, isotonic and isokinetic. Isometric exercises have a physiological overflow of 10 degrees on each side of the point of application (ie; to do the exercise at 20 degrees flexion, and you have strength gains from 10 to 30 degrees); isotonics and isokinetics, 15 degrees. Taking advantage of physiological overflow often allows us to bypass painful ranges of motion and still strengthen in that range of motion.   In this study, they looked at immediate and 45 minute later  pain reduction  (not function) comparing isometric (max voluntary quadricep contraction) and isotonic (single leg decline squat) exercises. They also looked at cortical inhibition (via the cortico spinal tract) as a result of the exercises.   Here is what they found:  “A single resistance training bout of isometric contractions reduced tendon pain immediately for at least 45 min postintervention and increased MVIC. The reduction in pain was paralleled by a reduction in cortical inhibition, providing insight into potential mechanisms. Isometric contractions can be completed without pain for people with PT. The clinical implications are that isometric muscle contractions may be used to reduce pain in people with PT without a reduction in muscle strength.”  These same results were not seen with the isotonic exercise.   Did the decrease in pain result in the decrease in cortical inhibition (muscle contraction is inhibited across an inflamed joint: Rice, McNair 2010; Iles, Stokes 1987)? Was it a play on post isometric inhibition (most likely not, since this usually only lasts seconds to minutes post contraction) ?   Or   is there another mechanism at play here? There has been one other paper we found  here , that shows cortical inhibition of quadriceps post isometric exercise. Time will tell. In the meantime, start using those multiple angle isometrics!  The Gait Guys   Rio E ,  Kidgell D ,  Purdam C ,  Gaida J ,  Moseley GL ,  Pearce AJ ,  Cook J .Isometric exercise induces analgesia and reduces inhibition in patellar tendinopathy  Br J Sports Med.  2015 May 15. pii: bjsports-2014-094386. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2014-094386. [Epub ahead of print]    http://www.anatomy-physiotherapy.com/28-systems/musculoskeletal/lower-extremity/knee/1163-isometric-exercises-in-patellar-tendinopathy

Isometrics for patellar tendonitis?

We are familiar with different modes of exercise: isometric, isotonic and isokinetic. Isometric exercises have a physiological overflow of 10 degrees on each side of the point of application (ie; to do the exercise at 20 degrees flexion, and you have strength gains from 10 to 30 degrees); isotonics and isokinetics, 15 degrees. Taking advantage of physiological overflow often allows us to bypass painful ranges of motion and still strengthen in that range of motion. 

In this study, they looked at immediate and 45 minute later pain reduction (not function) comparing isometric (max voluntary quadricep contraction) and isotonic (single leg decline squat) exercises. They also looked at cortical inhibition (via the cortico spinal tract) as a result of the exercises. 

Here is what they found: “A single resistance training bout of isometric contractions reduced tendon pain immediately for at least 45 min postintervention and increased MVIC. The reduction in pain was paralleled by a reduction in cortical inhibition, providing insight into potential mechanisms. Isometric contractions can be completed without pain for people with PT. The clinical implications are that isometric muscle contractions may be used to reduce pain in people with PT without a reduction in muscle strength.” These same results were not seen with the isotonic exercise. 

Did the decrease in pain result in the decrease in cortical inhibition (muscle contraction is inhibited across an inflamed joint: Rice, McNair 2010; Iles, Stokes 1987)? Was it a play on post isometric inhibition (most likely not, since this usually only lasts seconds to minutes post contraction) ? Or is there another mechanism at play here? There has been one other paper we found here, that shows cortical inhibition of quadriceps post isometric exercise. Time will tell. In the meantime, start using those multiple angle isometrics!

The Gait Guys

Rio E, Kidgell D, Purdam C, Gaida J, Moseley GL, Pearce AJ, Cook J.Isometric exercise induces analgesia and reduces inhibition in patellar tendinopathy Br J Sports Med. 2015 May 15. pii: bjsports-2014-094386. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2014-094386. [Epub ahead of print]

http://www.anatomy-physiotherapy.com/28-systems/musculoskeletal/lower-extremity/knee/1163-isometric-exercises-in-patellar-tendinopathy