Botox for plantar fasciitis? Sounds like a bad idea to us....

image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Plantar_aponeurosis_-_axial_view.png

image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Plantar_aponeurosis_-_axial_view.png

Botox..For plantar fasciitis? Really?

We found this article (1) in one of our favorite journals, Lower Extremity Review , and were a little surprised. Let us get this straight: you are going to take one of the the most poisonous biological neurotoxins known (1) and inject it into your calf and foot?

The article in LER is well written and the results (thankfully) were inconclusive regarding its usage. They do cite 3 studies (with two by the same lead author) where it has been effective (2-4). Yes, it is better than saline (5) (but not as good as extracorporeal shock wave therapy (6)), and better than placebo (7-10) but considerably more risky.

So the premise is “if the muscle is dysfunctional, then let’s just take it out of the equation”. But this really doesn’t fix the problem, it just covers up the symptom. And what about the other potential side effects since botulinum toxin acts not only at the neuromuscular junction, blocking the release of acetylcholine, but also at the autonomic ganglia, postganglionic parasympathetic nerve endings, as well as the post ganglionic sympathetics that use acetylcholine (capillaries of skin, piloerector muscles and sweat glands) (11)?.

In our experience, most cases of plantar fasciitis are secondary to lack of forefoot rocker, lack of ankle rocker, lack of hip extension or in some cases, direct trauma. Wouldn’t it make more sense to strengthen the anterior compartment to reciprocally inhibit the posterior compartment, increasing ankle dorsiflexion and hip extension? We find, oftentimes, treating only the area of chief complaint and not what is "driving the bus" can offer temporary, symptomatic relief but not long standing pathmechanics or pathoanatomy.

Just like the road to enlightenment, there are no shortcuts in treating plantar fasciitis and if you are not going to treat the cause, then be prepared to reap what you sow.

Dr Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys

#botox #plantarfascitis #badideas #gaitproblem #thegaitguys

1. https://lermagazine.com/article/botox-injection-not-just-for-celebrities-furrows-and-wrinkles

2. Elizondo-Rodriguez J, Araujo-Lopez Y, Moreno-Gonzalez JA, Cardenas-Estrada E,
Mendoza-Lemus O, Acosta-Olivo C. A comparison of botulinum toxin A and intralesional steroids for the treatment of plantar fasciitis: A randomized, double-blinded study. Foot Ankle Int.
2013;34(1):8-14.

3. Díaz-Llopis IV, Rodríquez-Ruíz CM, Mulet-Perry S, Mondéjar-Gómez FJ., Climent-Barberá JM., Cholbi-Llobel F. Randomized controlled study of the efficacy of the injection of botulinum toxin type A versus corticosteroids in chronic plantar fasciitis: results at one and six months. Clin Rehabil. 2012;26(7):594-606.

4. Díaz-Llopis IV, Gómez-Gallego D, Mondéjar-Gómez FJ, López-García A, Climent-Barberá JM, Rodríguez-Ruiz CM. (2013). Botulinum toxin type A in chronic plantar fasciitis: clinical effects one year after injection. Clin Rehabil. 2013;27(8):681-685.

5. Ahmad J, Ahmad SH, Jones K. Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis With Botulinum Toxin. Foot Ankle Int. 2017 Jan;38(1):1-7. doi: 10.1177/1071100716666364. Epub 2016 Oct 1.1.

6. Roca B, Mendoza MA, Roca M. Comparison of extracorporeal shock wave therapy with botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of plantar fasciitis. Disabil Rehabil. 2016 Oct;38(21):2114-21. doi: 10.3109/09638288.2015.1114036. Epub 2016 Mar 1

7. Babcock MS, Foster L, Pasquina P, Jabbari B. Treatment of pain attributed by plantar fasciitis with botulinum toxin A: a short-term randomized, placebo-controlled, double blinded study. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;84(9):649-654.

8. Samant PD, Kale SY, Ahmed S, Asif A, Fefar M, Singh SD. Randomized controlled study comparing clinical outcomes after injection botulinum toxin type A versus corticosteroids in chronic plantar fasciitis. Int J Res Orthop. 2018;4(4):672-675.

9. Huang YC, Wei SH, Wang HK, Lieu FK. Ultrasonographic guided botulinum toxin type A treatment for plantar fasciitis: an outcome-based investigation for treating pain and gait changes. J Rehabil Med. 2010;42(2):136-140.

10. Ahmad J, Ahmad SH, Jones K. Treatment of plantar fasciitis with botulinum toxin. Foot Ankle Int. 2017;38(1):1-7.

11. Nigam PK, Nigam A. Botulinum toxin. Indian J Dermatol. 2010;55(1):8–14. doi:10.4103/0019-5154.60343

Two out of Three ain't Bad...But sometimes it is

image credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Meatloaf_(1).jpg

image credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Meatloaf_(1).jpg

“What do you mean my plantar fasciitis is due to my hip?”

I recently saw a 60 YO male patient with right-sided plantar fasciitis of approximately 1-1/2 months duration. It began insidiously with pain located at the medial calcaneal facet on the right hand side. He had localized tenderness in this area with some spread distally towards the metatarsal heads. He has ankle dorsiflexion was relatively symmetrical with mild impairment on the right compared to left but only approximately 2 degrees. He had hip extension is 0 degrees on the affected side and 10 degrees on the affected side. Sacroiliac pathomechanics were present as well with the loss of flexion and extension. He had a slight leg length discrepancy, short on the symptomatic side.

So what is going on?

Moving forward in the sagittal plane requires a few things:

Adequate hip extension

Adequate ankle dorsiflexion

Adequate hallux dorsiflexion with an intact Windlass mechanism

He has a diminished step length going from right to left. Because of the lack of hip extension, the motion needs to occur somewhere. His ankle dorsiflexion is almost sufficient but less sufficient on the right (symptomatic) side than it is on the left. He has adequate hallux dorsiflexion but lacks adequate hip extension. Like the song goes, begin "Two of of three ain’t bad". However in this case, it is bad. He has an intact windlass mechanism. In fact, a little too intact. This is causing a tug at the medial calcaneal facet, creating an insertional tendinitis that we know as "plantar fasciitis".

So we did we do?

  • Manipulated the right sacroiliac joint

  • Gave him lift she/spread/reach exercises

  • Gave him shuffle walk exercises

  • Worked on hip flexor lengthening

  • Treated the plantar fascial insertion locally with acupuncture and laser therapy

Dr Ivo Waerlop, one of The Gait Guys

#gait, #gaitanalysis,#thegaitguys, #anklerocker#halluxdorsiflexion, #plantarfascitis

Can you guess why this person has left-sided plantar fasciitis?   This question probably seem somewhat rhetorical. Take a good look at these pedographs which provide us some excellent clues.   First of all,  note how much pressure there is over the metatarsal heads.  This is usually a clue that people are  lacking ankle rocker  and pressuring these heads as the leg cantilevers forward.  This person definitely have a difficult time getting the first metatarsal head down to the ground.   Notice the overall size of the left foot compared to the right (right one is splayed or longer).  This is due to keeping the foot and somewhat of a supinated posture to prevent excessive tension on the plantar fascia.   The increase splay of the right foot indicates more mid foot pronation  and if you look carefully there is slightly more printing at the medial longitudinal arch. This is contributing to the clawing of the second third and fourth toes on the right. Stand up, overpronate your right foot and notice how your center of gravity (and me) move medially.The toes will often clench in an attempt to create stability.   The patient’s pain is mostly at the medial and lateral calcaneal facets, and within the substance of the quadratus plantae with weakness of that muscle and the extensor digitorum longus. She has 5° ankle dorsiflexion left and 10 degrees on the right and hip extension which is similar.    The lack of ankle rocker and hip extension or causing her to pronate through her midfoot, Tensioning are plantar fascia at the insertion. The problem is worse on the left and therefore that is where the symptoms are.    Pedographs can be useful tool in the diagnostic process and provide clues as to biomechanical faults in the gait cycle.

Can you guess why this person has left-sided plantar fasciitis?

This question probably seem somewhat rhetorical. Take a good look at these pedographs which provide us some excellent clues.

First of all,  note how much pressure there is over the metatarsal heads. This is usually a clue that people are lacking ankle rocker and pressuring these heads as the leg cantilevers forward.  This person definitely have a difficult time getting the first metatarsal head down to the ground.

Notice the overall size of the left foot compared to the right (right one is splayed or longer). This is due to keeping the foot and somewhat of a supinated posture to prevent excessive tension on the plantar fascia.

The increase splay of the right foot indicates more mid foot pronation and if you look carefully there is slightly more printing at the medial longitudinal arch. This is contributing to the clawing of the second third and fourth toes on the right. Stand up, overpronate your right foot and notice how your center of gravity (and me) move medially.The toes will often clench in an attempt to create stability.

The patient’s pain is mostly at the medial and lateral calcaneal facets, and within the substance of the quadratus plantae with weakness of that muscle and the extensor digitorum longus. She has 5° ankle dorsiflexion left and 10 degrees on the right and hip extension which is similar.

The lack of ankle rocker and hip extension or causing her to pronate through her midfoot, Tensioning are plantar fascia at the insertion. The problem is worse on the left and therefore that is where the symptoms are.

Pedographs can be useful tool in the diagnostic process and provide clues as to biomechanical faults in the gait cycle.

Sometimes it  is  easy and straight forward.   
  HISTORY: A 56 YO 200 # male construction worker presents with pain at the bottom of his right foot, worse in the am, getting better as the day goes on till midday, then getting worse again. Better with rest and ice. More supportive shoes and a heel gel pad offer him some relief. Past history of plantar fascitis.   
  OBJECTIVE:            Tenderness at medial calcaneal facet right side;  tenderness also in the arch and over the flexor hallucis longus tendon and short flexors of the toes. Ankle dorsiflexion is less than 5 degrees on the right, and 15 on the left.  Hip extension was less than 10 degrees bilaterally. He has mild bi-lat. external tibial torsion. 
 Gait evaluation reveled an increased progression angle right greater than left.  Very limited ankle dorsiflexion noted bi-lat (decreased ankle rocker).  
 There is weakness of the short flexors (FDB) and long extensors (EDL) of the toes on the right. Poor endurance of the intrinsic musculature of the arch as well as interossei musculature during standing arch test. 
 PEDOGRAPH FINDINGS:  
  ASSESSMENT:       From history and exam, plantar fascitis.  
  PLAN:           He was given the following exercises:  lift/spread/reach, the one leg balancing, shuffle walks and toes up walking. These were filmed via ipad and sent to him.  We are going to build him a medium heel cup, full length orthotic made out of acrylic.  We will see him again later this week.  We will do some symptomatic treatment utilizing manual stimulation techniques, pulsed ultrasound and additional exercises aimed at improving dorsiflexion as well as hip extension.   
   

Sometimes it is easy and straight forward.

HISTORY: A 56 YO 200 # male construction worker presents with pain at the bottom of his right foot, worse in the am, getting better as the day goes on till midday, then getting worse again. Better with rest and ice. More supportive shoes and a heel gel pad offer him some relief. Past history of plantar fascitis. 

OBJECTIVE:           Tenderness at medial calcaneal facet right side;  tenderness also in the arch and over the flexor hallucis longus tendon and short flexors of the toes. Ankle dorsiflexion is less than 5 degrees on the right, and 15 on the left.  Hip extension was less than 10 degrees bilaterally. He has mild bi-lat. external tibial torsion.

Gait evaluation reveled an increased progression angle right greater than left.  Very limited ankle dorsiflexion noted bi-lat (decreased ankle rocker). 

There is weakness of the short flexors (FDB) and long extensors (EDL) of the toes on the right. Poor endurance of the intrinsic musculature of the arch as well as interossei musculature during standing arch test.

PEDOGRAPH FINDINGS: 

ASSESSMENT:       From history and exam, plantar fascitis.

PLAN:           He was given the following exercises:  lift/spread/reach, the one leg balancing, shuffle walks and toes up walking. These were filmed via ipad and sent to him.  We are going to build him a medium heel cup, full length orthotic made out of acrylic.  We will see him again later this week.  We will do some symptomatic treatment utilizing manual stimulation techniques, pulsed ultrasound and additional exercises aimed at improving dorsiflexion as well as hip extension.